"Arc of the Prophet"
Gregory V. Boulware
"Osiris was beautiful of face, but with a Dull and BLACK complexion”
“Two Nations are in thy womb and two manners of people shall be separated from thy bowels; and the one people shall be stronger than the other people; and the Elder shall serve the Younger.”
The Golden Rule:“Strong Family Loyalty, Ancestor Worship, Respect of Elders by Their Children and of Husbands by their Wives... Family is the basis for Ideal Government.
"Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself.”~Confucius~
"If the core of the Hebrew Culture has always been religion, then is it truthful to say that through religion, it has most strongly influenced the Western World."
Talking heads continue talking and protagonizing the word of the few in power and struggling to keep it so. They either have no clue or belief in prophecy as prescribed by the Most High who has taken effort to re-deliver his message via heralds of many stations; Elijah the precursor of the Messiah.
“Many Christians are stuck in spiritual quicksand. The harder they struggle to progress in their walk with (Yahshua, Jehovah, Christ) Jesus, the faster and deeper they sink. Becoming frustrated by the inability of their increased efforts to produce the joy, peace, power, and victory they have heard so much about, many believers have simply given up the struggle and have allowed themselves to sink in the quicksand of spiritual defeat, accepting it as their lot in life. These well-meaning saints go to church faithfully and attend every Christian conference they can find. They read Christian books, listen to Christian radio, and watch Christian television. They dedicate and rededicate their lives to the Lord until they are tired of walking the aisle, crying and begging God for help. Some have fasted and prayed and even sought Christian counseling to deal with their frustrations, yet there seems to be little payoff for their efforts.”
"Some of the saints are stuck in sins and circumstances they know they should be delivered from, but while they whole-heartedly desire deliverance, it continues to elude them."
“Why are churches, pastors, evangelists, members, saints and friends spending so much time trying to preach the gospel and win souls to Christ?”
“The United Kingdom in the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial” - Mandela
Eliza Earsman's message in her book, "Days of Elijah," accounts the true-to-life exposure of pure evil. It's attempts to dominate our daily lives, our very existence. The standing members (a little known secret society that has had members involved in most major events in world history for the last two hundred years) of the demonic, cultish like, power yielding brokers portrayed, are in fact, at this very moment, indulging in the colloquious masonic cause of their "New World Order!" The practice of "Divide and Conquer" is an essential tool in this quest for the mental chaining and continued enslavement of the world economy and constant devilish manipulation of human kind.
“Let the workers do as they will…let those in the depths use force and do wrong, so that we can be justified in using force against them…behold a New World Order!”
Despite failed attempts to silence this author, details emerge of the spiritual contentions and intentions of Britain's Mountbatten-Windsor Royal family, their inner circles, and other horrifying realities behind the Scottish Ritual Freemasons. Their World War III agenda is exposed. This evidence will move, shock, and sadden readers as a story of loss, faith, love, action, and grief unfolds.
“Being my Brothers' and Sisters' keeper, treating others as they would treat Me - It's not too late to Stop the War!”~Barack Obama~
"This True Story, as written by Eliza, takes the reader on an amazing journey that involves the Mountbatten-Windsor family, relatives of Sir Winston Churchill, builders of the United States White House, and much more. Now, after years of hardship, running from "those in power," and finally touched by God, the author Eliza Earsman has had the courage to step forward and share her story with us. What is so interesting about this story over those of others is its sheer unbelievableness. Yet all the facts are clearly presented.
In today's world of globalization, concealing how the powerful families continue to control much of the world's financial, economic, and political resources is becoming harder and harder. Yet, at the same time there has been little in terms of facts and hard evidence to clearly demonstrate this. In Days of Elijah: A True Story a few of those facts have been put forth. Like all good stories - and empirically based history."
"I can say that after reading this book my eyes are open a lot wider, I'm asking questions a lot more, and I'm examining the patterns between power, politics, and religion a lot closer."~Peter N. Jones~
“…thou shalt break his yoke from off the neck!”
The book, ‘Spirit of The Soul and The Death of Morals,’ authored by yours truly, espouses and concurs with descriptions concerning the ills of world society as does book titles, ‘Days of Elijah’ and ‘The Choice: The Issue of Black Survival in America.’
"A Presidential Commission found that relatively few white Americans would protest massive repression of Blacks. Presidential advisors have urged the internment of Black (Hebrew) youth on the pretext of rehabilitation. Sterilization and birth control programs are aimed against Blacks while masquerading under the name of hunger relief. In a December speech, President Richard Nixon dashed the hopes of many by not proposing any specific measures for immediate relief of hunger. His primary concern obviously was toward reducing the number of the hungry - not hunger itself - for it was on how to reduce the hungry that he had specific recommendations and specific action. The most emphatic of his three recommendations to the 4,000 conferees at Washington’s Sheraton-Park Hotel, urged that congress support his birth control proposals to congress."~Samuel F. Yette~
“There is no avoiding war; it can only be postponed to the advantage of the enemy”~Niccolo Machiaveni, 1502~
In America, just as the governor of Pennsylvania, Tom Corbett has done, state governments have reduced if not completely eliminated the 'Food Stamp Program' to the poor and needy. This particular ruler has publicly stated that he would not release educational dollars earmarked for public schools in the state's two largest cities. Primarily, The Philadelphia School District... The plan was without question a viable way to eliminate and eradicate an entire group of dependents at the beginning level...the children. Satan is constantly whispering in the ear of government. It is the easiest and fastest way to destroy mankind enmass.
"If you lead correctly, orders are unnecessary and useless.”
"Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the great and terrible day of the Lord comes. And he will turn the hearts of fathers to their children and the hearts of children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the land with a curse."— Malachi 4:5–6
According to the Bible, Elijah lived a mysterious life. The Aggadah naturally did not fail to supply the Biblical gaps in its own way. In the first place, it was its aim to describe more precisely Elijah's origin. Several different theories regarding Elijah's origin are presented in literature found within the Aggadah: (1) he belonged to the tribe of Gad (Midrash Genesis Rabbah lxxi.) He was a Benjamite from Jerusalem, identical with the Elijah mentioned in I Chron. viii: 27 He was a priest. That Elijah was a priest is a statement which is made by many Church fathers also (Aphraates, "Homilies," ed. Wright, p. 314; Epiphanius, "Hæres." lv. 3, passim), and which was afterward generally accepted. In some later works some rabbis speculate that he is to be identified with Phineas.
Elijah (Hebrew: Eliyahu, meaning "My God is Yahweh" or Elias (Greek: Elías; Latin: Helias; Arabic: Ilyas) was a prophet and a wonder-worker in the northern kingdom of Israel during the reign of Ahab (9th century BC), according to the Biblical Books of Kings. According to the Books of Kings, Elijah defended the worship of Yahweh over that of the Phoenician god Baal (which was considered as idol worship); he raised the dead, brought fire down from the sky, and was taken up in a whirlwind (either accompanied by a chariot and horses of flame or riding in it). In the Book of Malachi, Elijah's return is prophesied "before the coming of the great and terrible day of the Lord," making him a harbinger of the Messiah and the eschaton in various faiths that revere the Hebrew Bible. Derivative references to Elijah appear in the Talmud, Mishnah, the New Testament and the Qur'an.
Micah’s Deceptively Simple Words:“He has showed you, O man, what’s good; and what does the Lord require of you but to do justice, and to love kindness, and to walk humbly with your GOD?”
No Greek of Roman could have written, or even have understood, these words. They imply a cluster of ideas wholly alien to the Greek and Roman world views but at the very heart of Hebraism: The existence of a single God, from whom the idea of “the good” derives, and a moral role for human beings in which they, along with everything else, are subordinate to GOD.
History, as recorded by Wilkie and Hurt, Literature of the Western World, begins in the fifth century B.C., with Herodotus and his Greek History of the Persian Wars. Here too, fact and fancy are often mingled. The Exodus epic in the Bible and the Iliad and the Odyssey at the dawn of Greek Literature have been recorded is as the greatest achievement of the ancient world. But it can also be pointed out that among others, the Babylonian Gilgamesh (c.2000 B.C.), the Indian Mahabharata (350-500 A.D.), the Old English Beowulf (18th century A.D.), and the German Nibelungenlied (1200 A.D.). These are all “folk epics.” Although they have been put into final form by single authors, they were developed by folk poets, over extended periods of time, from traditional materials that dealt with the legendary histories of their peoples.
Folk epics have a wide variety of forms. They are all linked by certain recurring characteristics. Albeit, all are not regarded as, like the Bible, “Sacred Books,” all hold special places in their cultures as major statements of national of cultural identity…they are held to some degree of reverence. The dividing line between epic and history is not always so precise. Its roots are found in legendary history. While history is often seen through epic lenses, about half of the Bible’s Old Testament is presented as a history statement of the Hebrews. The Exodus saga, for example, blends history with folk epic. We cannot reconstruct from the Old Testament a factual account of early Israel such as a modern historian would write.
Hebrew History is history seen through faith; and the purpose of the Hebrew Bible is not to record precise dates and circumstances but, to trace out the underlying design on history as a Revelation of Religious Truth.
Arian:…Of The Heresiarch Arius
Followers of Arianism, the first widespread Christian Heresy, originating in the North African Church, preached by Arius and Eusebius of Nicomedia in the early 4th century. A logical development from origin, Arianism denied the divinity of Christ. Arius was excommunicated. The heresy spread in the near East and Constantine called the council of ‘Nicaea’ to establish an orthodox doctrine of trinity. The quarrel became political, led to the persecution of the Orthodox Christians, and rent the Christian East up to the council of Constantinople.
The Christianity of the Germanic Tribes was Arian until the 7th century.
Baal was the Canaanite god responsible for rain, thunder, lightning, and dew. Elijah not only challenges Baal on behalf of his own God, Yahweh, he challenges Jezebel, her priests, Ahab and the people of Israel. The Qur'an narrates that Elijah told his people to come to the worship of God and to leave the worship of Baal, the primary idol of the area.
In Judaism Elijah's name is invoked at the weekly Havdalah ritual that marks the end of Shabbat, and Elijah is invoked in other Jewish customs, among them the Passover Seder and the Brit Milah (ritual circumcision). He appears in numerous stories and references in the Haggadah and rabbinic literature, including the Babylonian Talmud.
In Christianity the New Testament describes how both Jesus and John the Baptist are compared with Elijah and on some occasions thought by some to be manifestations of Elijah, and Elijah appears with Moses during the Transfiguration of Jesus.
In Islam the Qur'an describes Elijah as a great and righteous prophet of God and one who powerfully preached against the worship of Ba'al.
Elijah is also a figure in various Christian folk traditions, often identified with earlier pagan thunder or sky gods.
The Qur'an states:
Verily Elijah was one of the apostles. When he said to his people: "Will you not fear God? Will ye call upon Ba'al and leave the Best of Creators, God, your LORD and Cherisher and the LORD and Cherisher of your fathers of old?"—Qur'an, chapter 37 (As-Saaffat), verse 123–126
The Qur'an makes it clear that the majority of Elijah's people denied the prophet and continued to follow idolatry. However, it mentions that a small number of devoted servants of God among them followed Elijah and believed in and worshiped the LORD.
They denied him (Elijah), and will surely be brought to punishment, except the sincere and devoted Servants of God (among them). And We left his (memory) for posterity.
In the Qur'an, God praises Elijah in two places:
Peace be upon Elijah! This is how We reward those who do good. He is truly among our believing servants.—Qur'an, chapter 37 (As-Saaffat), verse 127–128, 81, verse 129–132, 82
And Zachariah and John and Jesus and Elijah, they were all from among the righteous—Qur'an, chapter 6 (Al-An'am), verse 85, 83
Numerous commentators, including Abdullah Yusuf Ali, have offered commentary on VI: 85, 84 saying that Elijah, Zechariah, John the Baptist and Jesus were all spiritually connected.
Abdullah Yusuf Ali says:
The third group consists not of men of action, but Preachers of Truth, who led solitary lives. Their epithet is: "the Righteous." They form a connected group round Jesus.
Zachariah was the father of John the Baptist, who is referenced as "Elias, which was for to come" (Matt 11:14); and Elias is said to have been present and talked to Jesus at the Transfiguration on the Mount (Matt. 17:3).
While the final mention of Elijah in the Hebrew Bible is in the Book of Chronicles, the Christian Bible's reversal of the ordering of the books of the Hebrew Bible in order to place the Book of Malachi, which prophesies a messiah, immediately before the Christian Gospels, means that Elijah's final "Old Testament" appearance is in the Book of Malachi, where it is written, "Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and terrible day of the Lord." That day is described as the burning of a great furnace, "... so that it will leave them neither root nor branch." (Malachi 3:19) Traditionally, in Judaism, this is taken to mean the return of Elijah will precede the Messiah. In Christianity it is traditionally believed that the ministry of John the Baptist fulfilled this prophecy. Additionally, these verses are believed to represent Elijah having a role in the end-times, immediately before the second coming of Jesus.
The Christian End of Elijah in Malachi...
"Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the great and terrible day of the Lord comes. And he will turn the hearts of fathers to their children and the hearts of children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the land with a curse."— Malachi 4:5–6
From the time of Malachi, who says of Elijah that God will send him before "the great and dreadful day" (Mal. 3:23), down to the later stories of the Chasidic rabbis, reverence and love, expectation and hope, were always connected in the Jewish consciousness with Elijah.
Jewish legends about Elijah abound in the Aggadah, which is found throughout various collections of rabbinic literature, including the Babylonian Talmud. This varied literature does not merely discuss his life, but has created a new history of him, which, beginning with his death—or "translation"—ends only with the close of the history of the human race. The volume of references to Elijah in Jewish Tradition stands in marked contrast to that in the Canon. As in the case of most figures of Jewish legend, so in the case of Elijah, the Biblical account became the basis of later legend. Elijah the precursor of the Messiah, Elijah zealous in the cause of God, Elijah the helper in distress: these are the three leading notes struck by the Aggadah, endeavoring to complete the Biblical picture with the Elijah legends. His career is extensive, colorful, and varied. He has appeared the world over in the guise of a beggar and scholar.
"Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and terrible day of the Lord." That day is described as the burning of a great furnace, "... so that it will leave them neither root nor branch." (Malachi 3:19)
Traditionally, in Judaism, this is taken to mean the return of Elijah will precede the Messiah. In Christianity it is traditionally believed that the ministry of John the Baptist fulfilled this prophecy. Additionally, these verses are believed to represent Elijah having a role in the end-times, immediately before the second coming of Jesus.
And Jesus once said to the children:
“There was once a landlord who planted a vineyard. He rented it out to tenants and left home for a long time. When the time came to gather the grapes, he sent a slave to the tenants to receive from them his share of the harvest.
The tenants beat the slave and sent him away without anything. The landlord sent a second slave. The tenants shamefully beat him, wounded him, embarrassed him, and threw him out. He sent a third and the same happened to him.
The landlord thought what shall I do? I’ll send my son, they surely will respect him. He sent his son. When they saw his son coming – they said let’s kill him and his property shall be ours!
So they threw him out of the vineyard and killed him. What then will the owner do to those tenants? He will come and kill the tenants and give the vineyard to other tenants.”
“Now, my child”, the father asked, “What do you think the scripture meant?” The child of color replied,” I think it means that God was angry with the people and gave them an opportunity to clean up their act…to do the right thing…and they didn’t. They proved to be evil, so he kicked them off of the Earth and put new people in their place.”
“The stone that is rejected is worthless – it turned out to be the most precious of all – everyone who falls on that stone will be cut into pieces – if that stone falls on someone it will crush him to dust.”
Now, I ask you to take a look around you…take a look at what is happening in and to the world today, as we speak. Would you…liken it as to what was happening in the days of Yahshua/Jesus?
“Now it was Nimrod (working with those in power and the political elite) who excited them (the weak minded masses and other followers) to such an affront and contempt of God. He was the grandson of Ham, the son of Noah, a bold man, and of great strength of hand. He persuaded them not to ascribe it to God, as if it were through his means they were happy, but to believe that it was their own courage which procured that happiness. He also gradually changed the government into tyranny, seeing no other way of turning men from the fear of God, but to bring them into a constant dependence on his power. He also said he would be revenged on God, if he should have a mind to drown the world again; for that he would build a tower too high for the waters to reach. And that he would avenge himself on God for destroying their forefathers.”
Now the multitude were very ready to follow the determination of Nimrod, and to esteem it a piece of cowardice to submit to God; and they built a tower, neither sparing any pains, nor being in any degree negligent about the work: and, by reason of the multitude of hands employed in it, it grew very high, sooner than anyone could expect; but the thickness of it was so great, and it was so strongly built, that thereby its great height seemed, upon the view, to be less than it really was. It was built of burnt brick, cemented together with mortar, made of bitumen, that it might not be liable to admit water. When God saw that they acted so madly, he did not resolve to destroy them utterly, since they were not grown wiser by the destruction of the former sinners; but he caused a tumult among them, by producing in them diverse languages, and causing that, through the multitude of those languages, they should not be able to understand one another. The place wherein they built the tower is now called Babylon, because of the confusion of that language which they readily understood before; for the Hebrews mean by the word Babel, confusion…
Why did Josephus once say and write this message to the people?
From the Bible and history we see that Satan always stirs up his entire wrath just before the hour of deliverance. It will be no different this time.
Before the coming of the Messiah, Satan had all his people in key positions, especially the religious leaders. He directed King Herod to murder all the babies in Bethlehem in hopes of killing the promised Redeemer. The land of Israel was filled with legions of devils and unclean spirits to oppose the work of the Messiah. Jesus began His preaching ministry in the town where He grew up. The local people's reaction to His first sermon - they tried to kill Him! And that was the reception He got from the people He knew all His life!
Did you not remember that Satan knows more about the Bible than YOU? The Devil knows more about you than you’d dare to believe or admit…
Prior to 1960, libraries in America were filled with books on the Inquisition. Today however, very few can be found. . . . Why has the Inquisition been covered up? The total number of victims of this atrocity reached about 68 million people…
In 1933 the Vatican signed a Concordat with Germany making Roman Catholicism the only recognized religion in that country. Hitler was financed by Wall St. and the corrupt U.S. Bank.
We hear a lot about the Jewish Holocaust when 6 million Jews perished under Hitler (not to mention the Black Holocaust as it relates to enslavement of Blacks in Africa and throughout the world), most people don't know that Adolf Hitler was a Roman Catholic and an instrument of the Holy Office. Hitler was never excommunicated for his crimes against humanity and causing the deaths of millions of people; whereas Martin Luther was excommunicated for translating the Bible into German!! Not to mention the uncovered, exposed, and successfully prosecuted clergy of today.
“Adolf Hitler made my name a household word when he didn’t shake hands with me…President Roosevelt didn’t either. A Republican (Senator Alfred Mossman Landon (9.9.1887 – 10.12.1987), was an American Republican politician, who served as the 26th Governor of Kansas from 1933 to 1937.) did.”
“Jesse Owens had completed a task that had never been accomplished in the history of track and field.”~Alf Landon~
Eva Braun was a young girl at Simbach Convent. Martin Luther emptied the convents in Germany. He called them "cesspools of iniquity." The Jesuits filled them up again. Have you ever heard of Jezebel?
They were Bible-believing Christians, Jews and even Roman Catholics like Joan of Arc, Savanarola, Giordano Bruno and Galileo etc., who were destroyed by the Inquisition carried out by the "Holy Office." The victims were always found guilty. They never knew who accused them. They never had lawyers, and no one would dare lift a finger to help. . . . On August 28, 1558, Walter Mill (an 82 year old Scotsman and parish priest of Lunan near Montrose), was burned alive with several others for embracing the Reformed Faith!
“The last Pope will be a ferocious persecutor of true Protestant Christians. As in the past, the Inquisition under the Jesuits will be the instrument that Satan will use to try and bring the entire world under the Papacy.”
"And when the thousand years are expired, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison,
And shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle: the number of whom is as the sand of the sea.
And they went up on the breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city: and fire came down from God out of heaven, and devoured them.
And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are, and shall be tormented day and night for ever and ever. (Rev. 20:7-10)."
"And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself" (Luke 24:27).
To imply that Adam, Noah, Abraham, King David, the Virgin Mary, St. Peter and Jesus the Son of God had APES in their ancestry is to go beyond blasphemy and invite God to open the earth and send you down alive into hell:
"And the BEAST was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him . . . These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone" (Revelation 19:20).
The Papacy is directly descended from the Pharaoh. As the wicked, arrogant Pharaoh would not listen to Moses, and eventually tried to destroy him, this modern Pharaoh is still trying to destroy the WORDS of Moses as given to him by God.
Another reason why Rome hates the Book of Genesis is because the story of Sodom and Gomorrah is found there. The drama was acted out while Abraham was a sojourner in the Promised Land. The two cities were filled with vile homosexuals who wanted to gang rape angels:
"But before they (angels) lay down, the men of the city, even the men of Sodom, compassed the house round, young and old from every quarter: And they called unto Lot and said unto him, where are the men that came in to thee this night? Bring them out unto us, that we may know them”(Genesis 19: 4-5) Sodom.
“Then the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord out of heaven: And he overthrew those cities and all the plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and that which grew upon the ground" (Genesis 19:24-25).
“…But the same day that Lot went out of Sodom, it rained fire and brimstone from heaven, and destroyed them all" (Luke 17:29).
“The Moors... were Native Africans who were ostracized for their rejection of Christianity... (If my recollection is correct) Slavery has been in existence since the beginning.... then the 1600’s started the slavery exchange by the Dutch... The Triangle Slave Trade is when Europeans try to teach the Black History of Slavery....”~Cynthia Merrill Artis~
During the fifteenth century, while Black Africans were being channeled into a cultural vacuum, Europeans were experiencing the "humanists" movement. It was during this period when more and more books were being released from the European printing presses. In Germany alone, over 6 million books were hitting schools, stores, universities, libraries and households. At the same time, not only were books in Africa getting more scarce, new ones were not being printed.
Isabella of Portugal, Queen of Spain was largely influenced by the humanists learned in Italy. They felt, as human beings that African people lived without law. Further, such barbarians need the wise, those who study Latin and cherish education, to rule over them. When Spain gained the right to import Black slaves off an Island of Portugal named Santiago, it soon became the sixteenth century's largest African slave depot. This philosophy conferred a duty and obligation to enslave the Black barbarians who were by nature not capable of adhering to law. This philosophy prevailed as printed books spread throughout Europe marking the beginning of the Golden Age or the European Renaissance.
Europeans would feel obligated to invade Africa and export slaves. So the period from 1450 to 1550 marked the beginning of a vacuum characteristic of Black Africans.
...what did the Humanists do? Now that you expanded on their scope. They challenged the church. They were the wealthy. They went after the heads of governments in Europe. This was in the 1400s to 1500s. There were no pyramids being built then. They were already built. As the Europeans begin to make expeditions into Africa and destroy their strongest armies, they would burn their libraries so that could no longer build. They would bring back the spoils (black African slaves) and diamonds, gold and silver to the European kings and queens that sponsored the trip.~Jamal Abraham~
The majority of Christians or True Believers of Christ as I like to call them ...do not content with color of skin or race, because you'll find that the Word teaches that Jews and Gentiles are all the capable to being the children of God. It has no significance except to men who want to identify with color barriers.
The Bible has experienced many kinds of sufferings, in that it has be chewed, gnawed, torn and split apart because of men wanting to suit their own interpretations of Scriptures mostly to suit themselves. Taking scriptures out of content and making themselves think of what they desire. You will find that God's Word needs no addition or subtraction, but it is as it is. God warns men for taking and adding, or subtraction of the Word that these may receive punishment! It's evident that if one heeds to the Word and follow, obeying the Word in the heart of love. What has skin color to do with God's Word? God's Word is Spirit and teaches all men to love. Love has no color. It is man that deals with color and race; this is a division of men --in order to keep corruption going so that the "soul" cannot view the beauty of God's gift of love. Diversity of color has no bearing on the soul. The Word teaches love one another....and even in turn to love your enemy.
It is evidence in Scripture that Jesus was Jewish...He inherited the kingdom of heaven for God has given all power heaven and earth over to Christ...We who inherit believes in Jesus and if this binds up those True believers, we too become Jewish, because we become part of his body. This is spiritual!~MISRAEL Bride~
The true names of Horus and Isis are 'Heru' and 'Aset'. One was a God, the other a Goddess
(son and Mother to be precise) and they were worshipped by the Africans of the Nile Valley Basin over 5000 years before Yahweh, Jesus, Allah or Muhammad were even thoughts in anyone’s minds anywhere on this planet. That is an historical FACT you can take to the bank. They saw their greatest expression in Ancient Egypt and were transported out of Africa as the Herculaeum Worship of the Goddess Isis (Paris = 'Par' 'Isis', or 'the place of Isis') hence:
"Negroes/Blacks were first worshipped in Greece and Rome. White masses bowed down to Black deities. The rites of Apollo were founded by Delphos and his Negro mother, Melainis; and the worship of Black Isis and Horus were popular in Rome and the Roman colonies as far north as Britain.
When this latter evolved into the worship of the Black Madonna and the BLACK CHRIST whites also bowed down to them. Negroes, as was said, were deified in the early Greece. They appeared as gods in Greek mythology. The chief title of Zeus, greatest of the Greek gods, was 'Ethiops', that is ‘Black’.”
"After the Greeks (and thus the Romans) were CIVILIZED BY THE AFRICANS IN EGYPT most of what we now know as 'Europe' was still barbaric, and unheard of. There was really NO EUROPE in ancient times......and Europe as we know it was divided by the Rhine-Danube frontier, south and west of which lay the civilized provinces of the empire, and north and east the ''BARBARIANS' of whom the civilized world KNEW ALMOST NOTHING"
Barbarians are driven by evil spirits; "possessed by demons", who force them to commit the most terrible acts...incapable of living according to written laws and only reluctantly tolerating kings...Their lust for gold is immense, their love of drink boundless. Barbarians are without restraint...... they are given to gross personal hygiene...They run dirty and barefoot, even in the winter...They grease their hair with butter and care not that it smells rancid...Their reproductive energy is inexhaustible; the Northern climate of their native land, with its long winter nights favors their fantastic urge to procreate...If a barbarian people is driven back or destroyed, another already emerges from the marshes and forests...Indeed, there are no new barbarian peoples--descendants of the same tribes keep appearing."
The relevant aspects of Alexander as it relates to his relationship, purposes and outcome as regards Ancient Egypt, the land of the Black people. We have established that it was there in Ancient Egypt where the Greeks came in an effort to wrestle civilization away from the Africans of Egypt, with Alexander seeking the most effective way to bring this about; BY CHANGING THE IMAGE OF GOD IN THE EYES OF THE BLACK PEOPLE OF ANCIENT EGYPT BY INSERTING HIS OWN IMAGE INTO THEIR PANTHEON, THE IMAGE OF A WHITE SAVAGE WHO HAD ONLY JUST PREVIOUSLY STOPPED WORSHIPPING FIRE AND DRINKING THE BLOOD OF THEIR ENEMIES FROM THEIR HELMUT'S IN TIMES OF WAR.
PTOLEMY I. SOTER (LAGI)
This is the man who DESTROYED Black people. This is the man who removed you from your pedestal of world adulation. This is the man who succeeded where Alexander failed. This is the man responsible for your Black Children not knowing who they are. Before we go on, ASK YOURSELVES WHY YOU WERE NOT TAUGHT ABOUT HIM. They taught you about Columbus and Jesus didn’t they? They taught you about Washington and Lincoln didn’t they. You now receive high tech slave education and think you are being taught something of true value? If it is true that there is no greater service one can render than telling someone the truth then it is equally true by the very nature of the equation that there is no greater evil than intellectually incarcerating the mind of whole planet in falsehood out of expediency!
Ignorance is a disease of the mind and I can assure you it is highly contagious. In point of fact our communities (families, households, religious institutions etc.) suffer from a pandemic of it. This is the source of all of your ills; not the economics of money but the economics of IDENTITY in which we go from the cradle to the grave clutching a deficit not of or own making (at least not in its’ entirety). There were traitors amongst us in Ancient Egypt (and here at home, in America).
Ptolemy I SOTER was successful at finding some disaffected Priests from amongst the priesthood and they acquiesced to his request by going into the Ancient Egyptian pantheon of deities and they chose two aspects of the Ancient Egyptian expression of God most dearest to the native population (the indigenous Black people of Ancient Egypt). The history books give you a false reason for Ptolemy wanting to have his IMAGE made into a God.
The true reason was RACISM....WHITE SUPREMACY. This is the only thing the Greeks brought with them to Africa. The Greek inhabitants who flooded Ancient Egypt along with Alexander's arrival loved everything Egyptian EXCEPT FOR THE EGYPTIANS!!! Not because the Egyptians were Black, but because they the Greeks were mostly half breeds, mullattos and whites and by the very miscegenation of their blood they were from the outset disenfranchised from ever legitimately being ....an Ancient Egyptian (the status quo of the time culturally speaking). Many of the half breeds amongst the Greek population were partially related to the inhabitants of Ancient Egypt as it was the Black side of their Nile Valley Ancestry that actually founded much of Greece in the first place. Hence their feelings towards a people who they felt like 'outcasts' were no less resentful from their more Northern white Macedonian cousins with whom together they both comprised the populace of Greece.
The reason the white savage Ptolemy I Soter wanted to have HIS IMAGE made into a God was because the Black natives of Ancient Egypt were Africans no different from Black Africans in any other part of the continent TODAY. Therefore the basis of their 'religion' was Ancestralism...therefore God had to be represented, in their Black minds as the greatest of their BLACK ANCESTORS. And he was presented that way. God, to the indigenous black African masses of Ancient Egypt (your Ancestors), was known in their own African tongue as 'ASARU' (i.e. 'AUSAR' later to be called 'OSIRIS' by the white savage Greeks). Because GOD OSIRIS was considered by the Black people of Ancient Egypt to be the greatest of their ANCESTORS it was only natural that he LOOK LIKE THEM IN APPEARANCE, therefore unlike you 'identity- lobotomized' Jesus Victims, your Ancestors back in Africa, in Ancient Egypt, worshipped God in the Image of themselves....as a BLACK MAN, as their Ancestors were of course....BLACK PEOPLE, WHO LOOKED NOT UNLIKE YOURSELVES.
What conservative white Christians on the right have done is they have discarded this particular article of 'FAITH' so that unsuspecting minds would take his historical existence as a foregone conclusion.....which it cannot be once the facts are brought to bear. Hence...the facts are made 'not part of the curriculum' so you and your progeny are left dumb, deaf, blind and out of the loop....i.e. a 'believer.'~Christine Govenor~
"Writing in the aftermath of the French Revolution, these monarchists had created a counter history in defense of the aristocracy. Winning the hearts and minds of present and future readers would assuage some of the pain of recent defeat and mobilize defenses. The Revolution, they argued, was not rooted in poverty and despotism. Rather than a rising of the masses, it was the work of Adam Weishaupt’s Illuminati, a secret society that plotted to destroy all civil and religious authority and abolish marriage, the family, and private property. It was the Illuminati who schemed to turn contented peasants 'from Religion to Atheism, from decency to dissoluteness, from loyalty to rebellion.'
In the 1950s and 1960s, members of the John Birch Society made much of this supposed 'shadow' organization, using it as an effective substitute for their anti-Semitism. Perhaps some of the confusion regarding the organization is due to the fact that over time, the word illuminati came to be used more expansively for many enthusiasts of Enlightenment, including but not limited to the followers of Emmanuel Swedenborg. Nevertheless, the Illuminati's connection with Freemasonry was date-specific (the late 1700s) and place-specific (what is now Germany); it had NO involvement in Freemasonry elsewhere despite fanciful claims. Even the oft-mentioned 'Proofs of A Conspiracy' written in 1797 by Robison (and the root cause of so much furor in the United States as a result of one Boston Minister's fanciful claims made based on that book) notes that the Illuminati's brand of Freemasonry was NOT the same Freemasonry as found in England and from which all other legitimate Masonic lodges today can trace their ancestry.
The influence of Christianity was brought to bear upon Arabia both from Syria in the northwest and from Mesopotamia in the northeast. In the sixth century A.D. the Arabic kingdoms of the Ghassanids in Syria and the Lakhmids in Mesopotamia were allied respectively with the Byzantine and the Persian empires and were strong centers respectively of Monophysite and of Nestorian Christianity. From these regions and in this time if not also earlier, Christian ideas spread on into the farther reaches of Arabia. A careful study of the relevant data particularly in the Qur'an shows that Muhammad had a very considerable store of knowledge of Judaism and Christianity, and that it was of the sort whom he would have been most likely to obtain through oral channels and personal observation over a long period of time. He was especially impressed, it seems, with the fact that both the Jews and the Christians were People of a Book, and it was his desire likewise to provide his own people with a Book which would be to them what the Torah was to the Jews and the Bible to the Christians.
Ptolemaic Egypt began when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt in 305 BC and ended with the death of queen Cleopatra of Egypt and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. The Ptolemaic Kingdom was a powerful Hellenistic state, extending from southern Syria in the east, to Cyrene to the west, and south to the frontier with Nubia. Alexandria became the capital city and a center of Greek culture and trade. To gain recognition by the native Egyptian populace, they named themselves as the successors to the Pharaohs. The later Ptolemies took on Egyptian traditions, had themselves portrayed on public monuments in Egyptian style and dress, and participated in Egyptian religious life. Hellenistic culture continued to thrive in Egypt well after the Muslim conquest. The Ptolemies faced rebellions of native Egyptians often caused by an unwanted regime and were involved in foreign and civil wars that led to the decline of the kingdom and its annexation by Rome
Why are churches, pastors, evangelists, members, saints and friends spending so much time trying to preach the gospel and win souls to Christ? According to the bible, there is no longer a need for that!!!
“Greg…”“I don’t believe a word in the Bible after what I’ve learned this year!”
Hebrews 8:10-11 clearly states, Now, this is the covenant that I will make with the people of Israel in the days to come, says the Lord: “I will put my laws in their minds and write them on their hearts. I will be their God, and they will be my people. None of them will have to teach their friends or tell their neighbors, ‘Know the Lord.’ For they will all know me, from the least to the greatest.”
So (according to this passage), we understand the following 3 things:
1. God will put his laws (i.e., precepts, ways, guide, etc.) in people's minds and write them in their hearts.
3. No one will have to teach others about God or about getting to "know the Lord" because EVERYONE will know him regardless of who you are.
So, if you believe the bible to be true, and you follow what it says, then why are churches, pastors, evangelists, members, saints and friends still trying to do what their bible says there is no longer a need to do?~David Johnson~
"Osiris was beautiful of face, but with a dull and BLACK complexion”
"Egypt B.C.E. 1350...Osiris was sun-rayed; HIS COMPLEXION WAS BLACK AND HIS HAIR WAS WOOLY. He was included in a slaughter of the innocents ordered by Typhon from which he, of course, escaped. His legitimacy was proved by numerous miracles; some of his doctrines appear in THE BOOK OF THE DEAD.
He was crucified on the vernal equinox; he descended to hell where he remained three days and nights to judge the dead and rose again and ascended bodily to heaven"
CAMBRIDGE ENCYCLOPEDIA pp.107-108
"There can be no doubt that the Colchians are an Egyptian race...MY OWN conjectures were founded first in the FACT that they are BLACK SKINNED and have WOOLY HAIR...."
Herodotus Book 2 Chap.104 (450BCE)
"The English and African attitudes to history are DIFFERENT. The English man is not interested in history; he prefers to forget it, to let bygones be bygones and to let sleeping dogs lie. BUT THE AFRICAN TAKES HIS HISTORY VERY SERIOUSLY; even more seriously than the Irishman. HE MUST, BECAUSE AN IMPORTANT PART OF HIS RELIGION IS THE CULT OF HIS ANCESTRAL SPIRITS - something more than reverence, perhaps not quite as much as worship."(After living among the people of the Gold Coast and learning their ways for 16 years)
'My Africa'~W.E. Ward ~
"An eye for an eye only ends up making the whole world blind."Mohandas Karamchand (Mahatma) Gandhi:
Born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, India, Mahatma Gandhi studied law and came to advocate for the rights of Indians, both at home and in South Africa. Gandhi became a leader of India's independence movement, organizing boycotts against British institutions in peaceful forms of civil disobedience. He was killed by a fanatic in 1948.
A Spiritual and Political Leader, what was the ‘Mahatma’s goal and/or purpose to and for the people of the world? Was he a prophet of and for GOD?
Indian nationalist leader Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, more commonly known as Mahatma Gandhi, was born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, Kathiawar, India. He studied law in London, England, but in 1893 went to South Africa, where he spent 20 years opposing discriminatory legislation against Indians. As a pioneer of Satyagraha, or resistance through mass non-violent civil disobedience, he became one of the major political and spiritual leaders of his time. Satyagraha remains one of the most potent philosophies in freedom struggles throughout the world today.
The Fight for Indian Liberation:
In 1914, Gandhi returned to India, where he supported the Home Rule movement, and became leader of the Indian National Congress, advocating a policy of non-violent non-co-operation to achieve independence. His goal was to help poor farmers and laborers protest oppressive taxation and discrimination. He struggled to alleviate poverty, liberate women and put an end to caste discrimination, with the ultimate objective being “Self-Rule for India.”
Following his civil disobedience campaign (1919-22), he was jailed for conspiracy (1922-24). In 1930, he led a landmark 320 km/200 mi march to the sea to collect salt in symbolic defiance of the government monopoly. On his release from prison (1931), he attended the London Round Table Conference on Indian constitutional reform. In 1946, he negotiated with the Cabinet Mission which recommended the new policy which led to his assassination in Delhi by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu fanatic.
"I put men to death in war; I fought duels to slay others. I lost at cards, wasted the substance wrung from the sweat of peasants, punished the latter cruelly, rioted with loose women, and deceived men. Lying, robbery, adultery of all kinds, drunkenness, violence, and murder, all were committed by me, not one crime omitted, and yet I was not the less considered by my equals to be a comparatively moral man. Such was my life for ten years."~Leo Tolstoy~ (Influenced Gandhi)
While Tolstoy was working as a Junker for the Army, he had free time to kill. During quiet periods he worked on an autobiographical story called Childhood. In it, he wrote of his fondest childhood memories. In 1852, Tolstoy submitted the sketch to The Contemporary, the most popular journal of the time. The story was eagerly accepted and became Tolstoy's very first published work.
Tolstoy, after completing childhood, started writing about his day-to-day life at the Army outpost in the Caucasus. However, he did not complete the work, entitled ‘The Cossacks,’ until 1862, after he had already left the Army.
Amazingly, Tolstoy still managed to continue writing while at battle during the Crimean War. During that time, he composed Boyhood (1854), a sequel to Childhood, the second book in what was to become Tolstoy's autobiographical trilogy.
What about Dr. Martin Luther King? What was his role in the ever-changing world of vile evil behavior, arrogant leadership, and out-and-out ubiquitous opulent and convoluted humanistic debauchery? Was he a prophet sent by GOD? Was the message delivered and received?
Dr. King knew that if “civil disobedience” were to be effective, many people would have to hear about it. He decided to be a minister who would lead his people to freedom. After Dr. King finished his studies, he was ordained a minister and elected assistant pastor to Ebenezer Baptist Church, where his father had served for many years. Martin wanted to learn more, so he went to Crozer Theology Seminary where he learned about Mohandis K. Gandhi of India who had freed his people with non-violent, peaceful methods. When Dr. King graduated from the seminary, he studied at Boston University for his doctorate.
Soon after Reverend King began working, Mrs. Rosa Parks was arrested and put in jail because she would not give up her seat and move to the back of the bus. Black Folk were supposed to ride in the back of public transportation vehicles.
When the Minster and other American Black Leaders heard of the arrest, they planned an act of “Civil Disobedience” by boycotting the Montgomery Alabama Transportation System. Not one Negro Person not their supporters rode the buses in Montgomery. They either received rides from others, walked, or drove their own vehicles. This action continued for more than a year. Finally, after the losses could no longer be endured, and the involvement of the Supreme Court, the court ruled that Alabama’s bus segregation law was unconstitutional. The practice went against the laws of the United States Constitution. Therefore, the law was indeed illegal. The enforcement ended as did the boycott.
The movement gained worldwide respect after the victory. Along the way, sit-ins, marches, and demonstrations that publicized the fight for freedom, was a success for the people of the world. Together, The United People’s weapon of non-violence and peaceful demonstration was the key to the biggest “Freedom March on Washington on August 28, 1963. This march gave the Civil Rights Movement new importance. The United States Congress began to take interest in the Civil Rights Bill that President John F. Kennedy had proposed.
On October 14, 1964, Dr. King was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, his biggest honor. The prize of $54, 000 was donated to the Civil Rights Movement by the minster.
After his death by an assassin’s bullet, many people live by his ideas and beliefs and continue to follow and practice Dr. King’s philosophy of non-violence.
His augmented prophecy of the mountaintop, adduce and extol sagacious superlative universal deity.
John and Robert Kennedy, what was they’re part in the unfolding world prophecy of peace and service to humanity?
Bobby played a large role in the Freedom Riders protests. The Attorney General acted after the Anniston bus bombings to protect the Riders in continuing their journey. Kennedy sent John Seigenthaler, his administrative assistant, to Alabama to attempt to secure the riders' safety there. Despite a work rule which allowed a driver to decline an assignment which he regarded as a potentially unsafe one, Kennedy also persuaded a manager of The Greyhound Corporation to obtain a coach operator who was willing to drive a special bus for the continuance of the Freedom Ride from Birmingham, Alabama, to Montgomery, Alabama, on the circuitous journey to Jackson, Mississippi. Jim Crow segregation was the established law in the Deep South
The Supreme Court of the United States had ruled in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. Many schools, especially in southern states, did not obey the Supreme Court's decision. The Court also prohibited segregation at other public facilities i.e., buses, restaurants, theaters, courtrooms, bathrooms, and beaches. But it continued anyway.
The turbulent end of state-sanctioned racial discrimination was one of the most pressing domestic issues of the 60s. J.F.K. verbally supported racial integration and civil rights; during the 1960 campaign he telephoned Coretta Scott King, wife of the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., who had been jailed while trying to integrate a department store lunch counter. Bobby Kennedy called Georgia governor Ernest Vandiver and obtained King's release from prison, which drew additional Black support to John’s candidacy.
In his first State of the Union Address in January 1961, President Kennedy said "The denial of constitutional rights to some of our fellow Americans on account of race - at the ballot box and elsewhere - disturbs the national conscience, and subjects us to the charge of world opinion that our democracy is not equal to the high promise of our heritage."
President Kennedy's Civil Rights Address, June 11, 1963:
Kennedy believed the grassroots movement for civil rights would anger many Southern whites and make it more difficult to pass civil rights laws in Congress, which was dominated by conservative Southern Democrats, and he distanced himself from it. JFK was also more concerned with other issues early in his presidency, such as the ‘Cold War,’ the ‘Bay of Pigs fiasco’ and the situation in ‘Southeast Asia, a.k.a. as Viet Nam.’ as articulated by Robert.
The administration's early priority was to "keep the president out of this civil rights mess". Many civil rights leaders viewed Kennedy as lukewarm, especially concerning the Freedom Riders. Robert Kennedy, speaking for the president, urged the Freedom Riders to "get off the buses and leave the matter to peaceful settlement in the courts." After they organized an integrated public transportation effort to ride through the south, the Freedom Riders were repeatedly met with violence by whites, including and especially law enforcement officers, both federal and state. Robert assigned federal marshals to protect the Freedom Riders as an alternative to using federal troops or uncooperative FBI agents.
Displeased with the pace of John Kennedy's addressing the issue of segregation, Martin Luther King, Jr. and associates produced a document in 1962, a year after his ‘Affirmative Action’ order, calling on the President to follow in the footsteps of Abraham Lincoln and use an Executive Order to deliver a blow for Civil Rights as a kind of Second Emancipation Proclamation - Kennedy did not execute the order. On March 6, 1961, John signed Executive Order 10925 which required government contractors to "take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed and that employees are treated during employment without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin." It established the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity.
President Kennedy reluctantly sent 3,000 troops after the situation on campus turned violent. The Ole Miss riot of 1962 left two dead and dozens injured.
In September 1962, James Meredith enrolled at the University of Mississippi. He was prevented from entering. The President’s urging from the Attorney General, responded by sending 400 federal marshals. The Ku Klux Klan proved to be the instigating subculture at the Old Miss riot and many other racially ignited events. On November 20, 1962, Kennedy signed Executive Order 11063, prohibiting racial discrimination in federally supported housing or "related facilities". Meredith did finally enroll in his first class.
Bobby Kennedy had hoped that legal means, along with the escort of U.S. Marshals, would be enough to force Governor Ross Barnett to allow the school admission. Kennedy was very concerned there might be a "mini-civil war" between the U.S. Army troops and armed protesters. The President reluctantly sent federal troops after the situation on campus turned violent. Civil Rights clashes were on the rise that year. Kennedy related to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., about the prospects for civil rights legislation: "If we get into a long fight over this in Congress, it will bottleneck everything else, and we will still get no bill." In early 1963 Brother Robert and Ted Sorenson pressed John to take more initiative on the legislative front.
On June 11, 1963, the governor moved aside only after being confronted by Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach and the Alabama National Guard. They had just been federalized by order of the President. The President intervened when Alabama Governor George Wallace blocked the doorway to the University of Alabama to stop two African American students, Vivian Malone and James Hood, from attending. That evening J.F.K. gave his famous civil rights address on national television and radio. The launching his initiative for civil rights legislation provided equal access to public schools and other public facilities, and greater protection of voting rights.
As the president had predicted, the day after his TV speech, and in reaction to it, House Majority leader Carl Albert called to advise him that his two-year signature effort in Congress to combat poverty in Appalachia (Area Redevelopment Administration) had been defeated, primarily by the votes of Southern Democrats and Republicans. The President’s proposals became part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The day ended with the murder of a NAACP leader, Medgar Evers, in front of his home and family in Mississippi.
Earlier, Kennedy had signed the executive order creating the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women dated December 14, 1961. Further, on June 10, 1963, Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act of 1963, a federal law amending the Fair Labor Standards Act, aimed at abolishing wage disparity based on sex. The Commission statistics revealed that women were also experiencing discrimination; their final report documenting legal and cultural barriers was issued in October 1963. Former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt led the commission.
Over a hundred thousand people; with leaders, of the March on Washington, predominantly African Americans, gathered in Washington for the civil rights March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on August 28, 1963. The President feared the March would have a negative effect on the prospects for the civil rights bills in Congress, and declined an invitation to speak. He turned over some of the details of the government's involvement to the Dept. of Justice, which channeled hundreds of thousands of dollars to the six sponsors of the March, including the N.A.A.C.P. and Martin Luther King's Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).
The organizers and the president personally edited speeches which were inflammatory and agreed the March would be held on a Wednesday and would be over at 4:00 pm, ensuring a peaceful demonstration. Kennedy was highly impressed with King's speech as he watched on TV. Thousands of troops were placed on standby. The March was considered a "triumph of managed protest", and not one arrest relating to the demonstration occurred. Afterwards, the March leaders accepted an invitation to the White House to meet with Kennedy. Photos were taken at the affair. Kennedy felt the March was a victory for him as well and bolstered chances for the passing of the civil rights bill. The struggle was far from over.
September 15, at the 16th Street Baptist Church, just three weeks later, in Birmingham, a bomb exploded on Sunday. Four African American children died in the explosion and two other Black Children were shot to death in the aftermath. Six dead Black Children! The Civil Rights Legislation underwent some drastic amendments due to this evil violence. This resurgence critically endangered prospects for passage of the bill. The President was outraged. He immediately called the congressional leaders to the White House. The following day, without the additions, the original bill, had enough votes to get out of the House committee.
In 1963, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, who hated civil-rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. and viewed him as an upstart troublemaker presented the Kennedy Administration with allegations that some of Dr. King's close confidants and advisers were communists.
FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover viewed civil-rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. as an upstart troublemaker calling him an "enemy of the state" in 1963. He presented Bobby Kennedy with allegations that some of M.L.K.’s close confidants and advisers were communists. If made public the allegations would derail the Administration's civil rights initiatives. The Kennedy’s warned King to discontinue the suspect associations. Robert Kennedy later felt compelled, after the associations continued, to issue a written directive authorizing the FBI to wiretap King and other leaders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Hoover extended the clearance so his men were "unshackled" to look for evidence in any areas of King's life they deemed worthy for a month or so, on a trial basis. The Kennedys’ only gave written approval for limited wiretapping of King's phones. The wire-tapping continued through June 1966 on Dr. King's civil rights organization and was revealed days before Kennedy's death in 1968.
Seeing this as an extension of his civil rights policies, J.F.K. wanted to dismantle the selection of immigrants based on country of origin.
John F. Kennedy initially proposed an overhaul of American immigration policy that later was to become the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965. This initiation was sponsored by the president’s brother, Senator Edward Kennedy. It dramatically shifted the source of immigration from Northern and Western European countries towards immigration from Latin America and Asia. The policy change also shifted the emphasis in the selection of immigrants in favor of family reunification.
Native American relations
J.F.K. was asked by the American Civil Liberties Union to intervene and halt the project, but he declined The President cited a critical need for flood control. Construction of the Kinzua Dam flooded 10,000 acres of Seneca Nation Land. The Indian Nation had occupied the land under the Treaty of 1794, and forced 600 Seneca men, women, and children to relocate to Salamanca, New York. He expressed concern about the plight of the Seneca, and directed government agencies to assist in obtaining more land, damages, and assistance to help mitigate their displacement.
Robert Kennedy remained committed to civil rights enforcement to such a degree that he commented, in 1962, that it seemed to envelop almost every area of his public and private life—from prosecuting corrupt southern electoral officials to answering late night calls from Coretta Scott King. The communication was paramount due to concern for the imprisonment of her husband. Martin was jailed for demonstrations in Alabama. Bobby Kennedy demanded that every area of government begin recruiting realistic levels of Black and other ethnic workers, going so far as to criticize Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson for his failure to desegregate his own office staff. Bobby undertook the most energetic and persistent desegregation of White House administration that Capitol Hill had ever experienced during his tenure as Attorney General.
A great many of the initiatives that occurred during John Kennedy's tenure were as a result of the passion and determination of an emboldened Robert Kennedy. His rapid education in the realities of Southern racism underwent a thorough conversion of purpose as Attorney General. When discussing the legislative and executive support of the civil rights movement, it has become commonplace to assert the phrase "The Kennedy Administration" or even "President Kennedy" between 1960 and 1963. Asked in an interview in May 1962, "What do you see as the big problem ahead for you, is it Crime or Internal Security?" Bobby replied, "Civil Rights." His brother Jack came to share his sense of urgency on the matters at hand to such an extent that it was at the Attorney General's insistence that he made his famous address to the nation.
Bobby’s attempts to end the Freedom Rides early were in many ways tied to an upcoming summit with Khrushchev and De Gaulle. He believed the continued international publicity of race riots would tarnish the President while heading into international negotiations. This reluctance to protect and advance the Freedom Rides alienated many of the Civil Rights leaders at the time who perceived him as intolerant and narrow minded.
The younger Kennedy of the White House then negotiated the safe passage of the Freedom Riders from the First Baptist Church to Jackson Mississippi, where they were arrested. He offered to bail the Freedom Riders out of jail, but they refused. This upset Robert Kennedy to no end. He went so far as to call any ‘bandwagoners’ of the original freedom rides "honkers".
Ensuing riots during the period of Meredith's admittance resulted in hundreds of injuries and two deaths. Yet Kennedy remained adamant concerning the rights of Black students to enjoy the benefits of all levels of the educational system. The Office of Civil Rights also hired its first African-American lawyer and began to work cautiously with leaders of the civil rights movement.
Robert Kennedy saw voting as the key to racial justice, and collaborated with Presidents Kennedy and Johnson to create the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964, which helped bring an end to Jim Crow laws.
Was the coming and service of Madiba/Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela a foretold prophecy?
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was South Africa's first Black Chief Executive, and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His government leadership focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid through tackling institutionalized racism, poverty and inequality, and fostering racial reconciliation.
Madiba was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician, and philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He Politically an African nationalist and democratic socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress (ANC) from 1991 to 1997. Internationally, Mandela was Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1998 to 1999.
Mandela served over 27 years in prison, initially on Robben Island, and later in Pollsmoor Prison and Victor Verster Prison. An international campaign lobbied for his release. He was released in 1990, during a time of escalating civil strife. Mandela joined negotiations with President F. W. de Klerk to abolish apartheid and establish multiracial elections in 1994, in which he led the ANC to victory and became South Africa's first black president. He published his autobiography in 1995. During his tenure in the Government of National Unity he invited several other political parties to join the cabinet. As agreed to during the negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa, he promulgated a new constitution. He also created the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights abuses. While continuing the former government's liberal economic policy, his administration also introduced measures to encourage land reform, combat poverty, and expand healthcare services. Internationally, he acted as mediator between Libya and the United Kingdom in the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial, and oversaw military intervention in Lesotho. He declined to run for a second term, and was succeeded by his deputy, Thabo Mbeki. Mandela became an elder statesman, focusing on charitable work in combating poverty and HIV/AIDS through the Nelson Mandela Foundation.
A Xhosa born to the Thembu royal family, Mandela attended the Fort Hare University and the University of Witwatersrand, where he studied law. Living in Johannesburg, he became involved in anti-colonial politics, joining the ANC and becoming a founding member of its Youth League. After the South African National Party came to power in 1948, he rose to prominence in the ANC's 1952 Defiance Campaign, was appointed superintendent of the organization's Transvaal chapter and presided over the 1955 Congress of the People. Working as a lawyer, he was repeatedly arrested for seditious activities and, with the ANC leadership, was unsuccessfully prosecuted in the Treason Trial from 1956 to 1961. Influenced by Marxism, he secretly joined the South African Communist Party (SACP) and sat on its Central Committee. Although initially committed to non-violent protest, in association with the SACP he co-founded the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) in 1961, leading a sabotage campaign against the apartheid government. In 1962, he was arrested, convicted of conspiracy to overthrow the state, and sentenced to life imprisonment in the Rivonia Trial.
One of this king's sons, named Mandela, became Nelson's grandfather and the source of his surname. Because Mandela was only the king's child by a wife of the Ixhiba clan, a so-called "Left-Hand House", the descendants of his cadet branch of the royal family were morganatic, ineligible to inherit the throne but recognized as hereditary royal councilors. His father, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa, was a local chief and councilor to the monarch; he had been appointed to the position in 1915, after his predecessor was accused of corruption by a governing white magistrate.
Mandela was born on 18 July 1918 in the village of Mvezo in Umtata, then a part of South Africa's Cape Province. Given the forename Rolihlahla, a Xhosa term colloquially meaning "troublemaker", in later years he became known by his clan name, Madiba. His patrilineal great-grandfather, Ngubengcuka, was ruler of the Thembu people in the Transkeian Territories of South Africa's modern Eastern Cape Province.
In 1926, Gadla, too, was sacked for corruption, but Nelson was told that he had lost his job for standing up to the magistrate's unreasonable demands. A devotee of the god Qamata, Gadla was a polygamist, having four wives, four sons and nine daughters, who lived in different villages. Nelson's mother was Gadla's third wife, Nosekeni Fanny, who was daughter of Nkedama of the Right Hand House and a member of the AmaMpemvu Clan of Xhosa.
Madiba was a controversial figure for much of his life. Denounced as a communist terrorist by critics, he nevertheless gained international acclaim for his activism, having received more than 250 honors, including the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize, the US Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Soviet Order of Lenin and the Bharat Ratna. He is held in deep respect within South Africa, where he is often referred to by his Xhosa clan name, Madiba, or as Tata ("Father"); he is often described as "the father of the nation".
Later stating that his early life was dominated by "custom, ritual and taboo", Madiba grew up with two sisters in his mother's kraal in the village of Qunu, where he tended herds as a cattle-boy, spending much time outside with other boys. Both his parents were illiterate, but being a devout Christian, his mother sent him to a local Methodist school when he was about seven. Baptized a Methodist, Madiba was given the English forename of "Nelson" by his teacher. When Madiba was about nine, his father came to stay at Qunu, where he died of an undiagnosed ailment which Mandela believed to be lung disease. Feeling "cut adrift", he later said that he inherited his father's "proud rebelliousness" and "stubborn sense of fairness".
"No one in my family had ever attended school. On the first day of school my teacher, Miss Mdingane, gave each of us an English name. This was the custom among Africans in those days and was undoubtedly due to the British bias of our education. That day, Miss Mdingane told me that my new name was Nelson. Why this particular name, I have no idea."— Madiba/Mandela, 1994
"We, the people of South Africa, declare for all our country and the world to know:
That South Africa belongs to all who live in it, black and white, and that no government can justly claim authority unless it is based on the will of the people."— Opening words of the Freedom Charter
Congress of the People and the Treason Trial: 1955–1961:
Madiba advised Sisulu to request weaponry from the People's Republic of China, but though supporting the anti-apartheid struggle, China's government believed the movement insufficiently prepared for guerilla warfare.
In February 1955, Nelson Mandela, took part in the unsuccessful protest. He came to the opinion that the ANC "had no alternative than to participate in armed and violent resistance." The freedom seeking group could not prevent the demolition of the all-Black Sophiatown suburb of Johannesburg.
The Colored People's Congress:
Rusty Bernstein drafted a Freedom Charter. It called for the creation of a democratic, non-racialist state with the nationalization of major industry with the involvement of the South African Indian Congress, the South African Congress of Trade Unions, the Congress of Democrats, and the ANC They planned a Congress of the People, calling on all South Africans to send in proposals for a post-apartheid era. Police cracked down on the event. It didn’t make a difference or curb the movement forward. But it remained a key part of Mandela's ideology. 3000 delegates attended the conference in Kliptown when the charter was adopted in June 1955.
Winnie Madikizela, a social worker, and nelson were married in Bizana on 14 June 1958. She later became involved in ANC activities, spending several weeks in prison. Madiba went on a working holiday, visiting his mother and Noengland before proceeding to Cape Town and then to Transkei for discussions on the implications of the Bantu Authorities Act of 1951 with local tribal leaders. Madiba received his third ban on public appearances, the second ban in September 1955, restricting him to Johannesburg for five years. He defied them all.
Arrested December 5, 1956, alongside most of the ANC Executive for "High Treason" against the state, Mandela was imprisoned in Johannesburg, amid mass protests. Before being granted bail on December 19, they underwent a preparatory examination in Drill Hall. The defense began its’ refutation on January 9, 1957. Defense lawyer Vernon Berrangé lead the defense team. In January 1958, Judge Oswald Pirow was appointed to the case. In February, he ruled that there was "sufficient reason" for the defendants to go on trial. The Treason Trial began in Pretoria in August 1958, with the defendants successfully applying to have the three judges – all linked to the governing National Party – replaced. In August, one charge was dropped, and in October the prosecution withdrew its indictment, submitting a reformulated version in November which argued that the ANC leadership committed high treason by advocating violent revolution. The stalwart defendants denied the charge.
Imprisoned without charge, in the unsanitary conditions of the Pretoria Local prison, under the State of Emergency measures, Mandela and other activists were arrested on March 30. Mandela's friend Robert Sobukwe was elected president in April 1959. Militant Africanists were dissatisfied with the ANC's united front approach founded the Pan-African Congress (PAC). Mandela thought the group "immature". Both parties campaigned for an anti-pass campaign in May 1960, in which Africans burned the passes that they were legally obliged to carry. Police fired upon one of the PAC-organized demonstrations resulting in the deaths of 69 protesters in the Sharpeville massacre. Mandela, in solidarity, publicly burned his pass as rioting broke out across South Africa. The government proclaimed martial law. The ANC and PAC were banned in April. This made it difficult for their lawyers to reach them, and it was agreed that the defense team for the Treason Trial should withdraw in protest. The accused were freed after representing themselves in court, from prison when the state of emergency was lifted in late August. Mandela used his free time to organize an All-In African Conference near Pietermaritzburg, Natal.
March29 1961, after a six-year trial, the judges produced a verdict of not guilty, embarrassing the government. In March, 1,400 anti-apartheid delegates met. They agreed on a stay-at home protest to mark the day South Africa became a republic, May31st.
Mandela co-founded Umkhonto we Sizwe ("Spear of the Nation", abbreviated MK) with the long-time leader of the South African Communist Party (SACP), Joe Slovo and Walter Sisulu, in 1961. Becoming chairman of the militant group, Madiba gained ideas from illegal literature on guerilla warfare by Mao and Che Guevara. Inspired by Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement in the Cuban Revolution.
Operating through a cell structure, Madiba’s former home in the Johannesburg township of Soweto,
MK agreed to acts of sabotage to exert maximum pressure on the government with minimum casualties, bombing military installations, power plants, telephone lines and transport links at night, when civilians were not present. Mandela stated that they chose sabotage not only because it was the least harmful action, but also "because it did not involve loss of life and it offered the best hope for reconciliation among the races afterward." He noted that "strict instructions were given to members of MK that we would countenance no loss of life", but should these tactics fail, MK would resort to "guerilla warfare and terrorism". Soon after ANC leader Luthuli was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, MK publicly announced its existence with 57 bombings on Dingane's Day, December16 1961, followed by further attacks on New Year's Eve.
The ANC agreed to send Madiba as a delegate to the February 1962 Pan-African Freedom Movement for East, Central and Southern Africa (PAFMECSA) meeting in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Traveling there in secret, Mandela gave his speech and met with Emperor Haile Selassie I at the conference. He travelled to Cairo, Egypt, admiring the political reforms of President Gamal Abdel Nasser, and then went to Tunis, Tunisia, where President Habib Bourguiba gave him funds for weaponry. He proceeded to Morocco, Mali, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Senegal, (also receiving funds) from Liberian President William Tubman and Guinean President Ahmed Sékou Touré. Leaving Africa for London, England, he met anti-apartheid activists, reporters and prominent leftist politicians. Madiba began a six-month course in guerrilla warfare after Returning to Ethiopia, but completed only two months before being recalled to South Africa.
Police captured Mandela 0n August 5, 1962, along with Cecil Williams near Howick. A large number of groups have been accused of having tipped off the police about Mandela’s whereabouts including Mandela’s host in Durban GR Naidoo, white members of the South African Communist Party, and the CIA. Madiba considered none of these connections to be credible and instead attributed his arrest to his own carelessness in concealing his movements.
"I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons will live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal for which I hope to live for and to see realized. But, My Lord, if it needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die."~Rivonia Trial Speech, 1964~
Their chief prosecutor was Percy Yutar. The Rivonia Trial began at Pretoria Supreme Court on October 9. Mandela and his comrades were charged with four counts of sabotage and conspiracy to violently overthrow the government. He called for them to receive the death penalty. Judge Quartus De Wet soon threw out the prosecution's case for insufficient evidence, but Yutar reformulated the charges, presenting his new case from December until February 1964, calling 173 witnesses and bringing thousands of documents and photographs to the trial.
James Kantor was the exception. He was innocent of all charges. Madiba and the accused admitted sabotage but denied that they had ever agreed to initiate guerilla war against the government. They used the trial to highlight their political cause. At the opening of the defense’s proceedings Madiba gave a three-hour speech. That speech – which was inspired by Castro's "History Will Absolve Me" speech was widely reported in the press despite official censorship, and has been hailed as one of his greatest speeches. The trial gained international attention. Global calls for the release of the accused from such institutions as the United Nations and World Peace Council were pouring in. The University of London Union voted Mandela to its presidency, and nightly vigils for him were held in St. Paul's Cathedral, London.
Deeming them to be violent communist agitators, South Africa's government ignored all calls for clemency. On June 12, 1964, De Wet found Madiba and two of his co-accused guilty on all four charges, sentencing them to life imprisonment rather than death.
In May 1990, Mandela led a Multiracial ANC delegation into preliminary negotiations with a government delegation of 11 Afrikaner men. At the conference, he was elected ANC President, replacing the ailing Tambo, and a 50-strong Multiracial, Mixed Gendered National Executive. Madiba impressed them with his discussions of Afrikaner history, and the negotiations led to the Groot Schuur Minute, in which the government lifted the state of emergency. In August Madiba – recognizing the ANC's severe military disadvantage, offered a ceasefire. The Pretoria Minute, for which he was widely criticized by MK activists while trying to unify and build the ANC. Appearing at a Johannesburg conference in December, attended by 1600 delegates, many of them found Madiba a bit more moderate than expected. At the ANC's July 1991 national conference in Durban, Mandela admitted the party's faults and announced his aim to build a "strong and well-oiled task force" for securing majority rule.
Meeting supporters and politicians in Zambia, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Libya and Algeria, Madiba proceeded on a tour of Africa and then to London. Continuing on from London to Sweden, he was reunited with Tambo, where he appeared at the Nelson Mandela International Tribute for a Free South Africa concert in Wembley Stadium. He encouraged foreign countries to support sanctions against the apartheid government. In France he was welcomed by President François Mitterrand. Madiba was also welcomed in Vatican City by Pope John Paul II. He met Margaret Thatcher of the United Kingdom. In the United States, he met President George H.W. Bush, while addressed both Houses of Congress and visited eight cities, being particularly highly popular among the African-American community. Before visiting Australia to meet Prime Minister Bob Hawk. In Asia he met President R. Venkataraman in India, President Suharto in Indonesia and Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad in Malaysia, and Japan. In Cuba he met President Fidel Castro, whom he had long admired, with the two becoming friends, he notably did not visit the Soviet Union, a longtime ANC supporter.
Mandela was given an office in the newly purchased ANC headquarters at Shell House, central Johannesburg. He moved Winnie to her large Soweto home. Their marriage became visibly and increasingly strained as he learned of her affair with Dali Mpofu. He remained steadfast in supporting her during her trial for kidnapping and assault. He gained funding for her defense from the International Defense and Aid Fund for Southern Africa and from Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi. In June 1991 she was found guilty and was sentenced to prison.
On appeal, reduced by four, from the original six years was all she had to serve. On 13 April 1992, Madiba publicly announced his separation from Winnie. The ANC forced her to step down from the National Executive for misappropriating ANC funds. President Nelson Mandela's reputation was further damaged by the increase in "Black-on-Black" violence, particularly between ANC and Inkatha supporters in KwaZulu-Natal, in which thousands died. The President met with Inkatha leader Buthelezi, but the ANC prevented further negotiations on the issue. Mandela recognized that there was a "third force" within the state intelligence services fuelling the "slaughter of the people" and openly blamed De Klerk. The President increasingly distrusted him for the Sebokeng massacre. In September 1991 a peace accord, was signed by Mandela, Buthelezi and De Klerk at a national peace conference that was held in Johannesburg.
Mandela headed a Government of National Unity dominated by the ANC – which alone had no experience of governance – but containing representatives from the National Party and Inkatha. Under the Interim Constitution, Inkatha and the NP were entitled to seats in the government by virtue of winning at least 20 seats. The newly elected National Assembly's first act was to formally elect Mandela as South Africa's First Black Chief Executive. His inauguration took place in Pretoria on May 10 1994. The proceeding was televised to a billion viewers globally. The event was attended by 4000 guests, including world leaders from incommensurable backgrounds. In keeping with earlier agreements, De Klerk became first Deputy President, and Thabo Mbeki was selected as second. Mandela grew to rely heavily on Mbeki throughout his presidency. He had not been his first choice for the job. Mbeki was also allowed to organize many governmental policy details. Moving into the presidential office at Tuynhuys in Cape Town, retaining his Houghton home, Madiba also had a house built in his home village of Qunu, which he visited regularly. Walking around the area, meeting with locals, and judging tribal disputes, Madiba allowed De Klerk to retain the presidential residence in the Groote Schuur estate, instead settling into the nearby Westbrooke manor, which he renamed "Genadendal", meaning "Valley of Mercy" in Afrikaans.
Despite his opulent surroundings, Mandela lived simply, donating a third of his 552,000 rand annual income to the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund. Mandela moved into the presidential office at Tuynhuys, Cape Town. The location was a mostly white Johannesburg suburb of Houghton. At age 76, he faced various ailments, and although exhibiting continued energy, he felt isolated and lonely. He often entertained celebrities, such as Michael Jackson, Whoopi Goldberg, and the Spice Girls, and befriended ultra-rich businessmen, like Harry Oppenheimer of Anglo-American, as well as Queen Elizabeth II on her March 1995 state visit to South Africa. The lifestyle resulted in strong criticism from ANC anti-capitalists.
Madiba entered into a relationship with Graça Mache in 1995. She was a Mozambican political activist who was 27 years his junior. She was the widow of former President Samora Machel. They had first met in July 1990, when she was still in mourning. Their friendship grew into a partnership. Machel accompanied Madiba on many of his foreign visits. She turned down his first marriage proposal, wanting to retain some independence and dividing her time between Mozambique and Johannesburg.
In late 1994 he attended the 49th conference of the ANC in Bloemfontein, at which a more militant National Executive was elected, among them Winnie Mandela; although she expressed an interest in reconciling, The President initiated divorce proceedings in August 1995.
In October 1994, with Ambassador and lifelong friend of The United States, Harry Schwarz and Nelson Mandela during his state visit to Washington D.C., presided over the transition from Apartheid Minority Rule to a Multicultural Democracy, Mandela saw ‘National Reconciliation’ as the primary task of his presidency. Having seen other post-colonial African economies damaged by the departure of white elites, Madiba, The New President worked to reassure South Africa's white population that they were protected and represented in "The Rainbow Nation". Mandela attempted to create the broadest possible coalition in his cabinet, with De Klerk as First Deputy President. Other National Party officials became ministers for Agriculture, Energy, Environment, and Minerals and Energy, and Buthelezi was named Minister for Home Affairs. The other cabinet positions were taken by ANC members like Joe Modise, Alfred Nzo, Joe Slovo, Mac Maharaj, Dullah Omar, Tito Mboweni and Jeff Radebe, were long time comrades and much younger members.
Madiba's relationship with De Klerk was strained. Mandela thought that De Klerk was intentionally provocative, and De Klerk felt that he was being intentionally humiliated by The President. In January 1995, Mandela heavily chastised him for awarding amnesty to 3,500 police just before the election, and later criticized him for defending former Minister of Defense Magnus Malan when the latter was charged with murder.
Invictus / Inviticus:
Madiba personally met with senior figures of the apartheid regime, including Hendrik Verwoerd's widow Betsie Schoombie and the lawyer Percy Yutar; emphasizing personal forgiveness and reconciliation, he announced that "courageous people do not fear forgiving, for the sake of peace." Madiba encouraged Black South Africans to get behind the previously hated national rugby team, the Springboks, as South Africa hosted the 1995 Rugby World Cup. After the Springboks won an epic final over New Zealand, Madiba presented the trophy to Captain Francois Pienaar, an Afrikaner. The President, wearing a Springbok shirt with Pienaar's own number 6 on the back, was widely seen as a major step in the reconciliation of white and Black South Africans. De Klerk later put it, "Mandela won the hearts of millions of white rugby fans."
Madiba's efforts at lessening the fears of whites also drew criticism from more militant Blacks. His estranged wife, Winnie, accused the ANC of being more interested in “appeasing whites” than in helping Blacks.
Attempting to prevent the creation of martyrs, the Commission granted individual amnesties in exchange for testimony of crimes committed during the apartheid era. Mandela oversaw the formation of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate crimes committed under apartheid by both the government and the ANC, appointing Desmond Tutu as its chair.
Dedicated in February 1996, the commission held two years of hearings detailing rapes, torture, bombings, and assassinations, before issuing its final report in October 1998. Both de Klerk and Mbeki appealed to have parts of the report suppressed, though only de Klerk's appeal was successful. Mandela praised the Commission's work, stating that it "had helped us move away from the past to concentrate on the present and the future".
Did it, this major change in history…the world, really make a difference?
In December 1994, Mandela's autobiography, "Long Walk to Freedom,” was published.
Was the coming of Barack Hussein Obama a foretold prophecy?
In 2004, Obama received national attention during his campaign to represent Illinois in the United States Senate with his victory in the March Democratic Party primary, his keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in July, and his election to the Senate in November. He began his presidential campaign in 2007, and in 2008, after a close primary campaign against Hillary Rodham Clinton; he won sufficient delegates in the Democratic Party primaries to receive the presidential nomination. He then defeated Republican nominee John McCain in the general election, and was inaugurated as president on January 20, 2009. Nine months after his election, President Obama was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate.
Barack Hussein Obama II, born August 4, 1961, the 44th President of the United States, the first African descendent on American soil to hold the office, was born in Honolulu, Hawaii. President Obama, a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, also served as President of the Harvard Law Review. He was a community organizer in Chicago before earning his law degree. He worked as a civil rights attorney in Chicago and taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. He served three terms representing the 13th District in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004, running unsuccessfully for the United States House of Representatives in 2000.
During his first two years in office, Obama signed into law economic stimulus legislation in response to the Great Recession in the form of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and the Tax Relief Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010. Other major domestic initiatives in his first term include the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, often referred to as "Obamacare"; the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act; and the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010. In foreign policy, Obama ended U.S. military involvement in the Iraq War, increased U.S. troop levels in Afghanistan, signed the New START arms control treaty with Russia, ordered U.S. military involvement in Libya, and ordered the military operation that resulted in the death of Osama bin Laden. He later became the first sitting U.S. president to publicly support same-sex marriage. In November 2010, the Republicans regained control of the House of Representatives as the Democratic Party lost a total of 63 seats, and after a lengthy debate over federal spending and whether or not to raise the nation's debt limit, President Obama signed the Budget Control Act of 2011 and the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012.
President Barack Obama was re-elected president in November 2012, defeating Republican nominee Mitt Romney, and was sworn in for a second term on January 20, 2013. During his second term, Obama has promoted domestic policies related to gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, has called for full equality for LGBT Americans, and his administration filed briefs which urged the Supreme Court to strike down the Defense of Marriage Act of 1996 and California's Proposition 8 as unconstitutional. In foreign policy, The President has continued the process of ending U.S. combat operations in Afghanistan.
Barack Hussein Obama, Sr. completed his undergraduate economics degree in Hawaii in June 1962, then left to attend graduate school at Harvard University on a scholarship. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964. Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964 where he remarried; he visited Barack in Hawaii only once, in 1971. He died in an automobile accident in 1982 when his son was 21 years old. In 1963, Dunham met Lolo Soetoro. He was an Indonesian East–West Center graduate student of geography at the University of Hawaii. The couple married on Molokai, March 15, 1965. After two one-year extensions of his J-1 visa, Lolo returned to Indonesia in 1966. He was later followed sixteen months later by his wife and stepson in 1967. The family was initially living in a Menteng Dalam neighborhood in the Tibet sub district of south Jakarta and then a wealthier neighborhood in the Menteng sub district of Central Jakarta. From age six to ten, Obama attended local Indonesian-language schools:
St. Francis of Assisi Catholic School for two years and Besuki Public School for one and a half years, supplemented by English-language Calvert School enhanced with homeschooling by his mother.
The President described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multiracial heritage. Reflecting later on the years in Honolulu, Barack recalled, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me—that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk—barely registered in my mind." Obama also wrote: "The opportunity that Hawaii offered—to experience a variety of cultures in a climate of mutual respect—became an integral part of my world view, and a basis for the values that I hold most dear."
In a 2006 interview, Obama highlighted the diversity of his extended family: "It's like a little mini-United Nations", he said. "I've got relatives who look like Bernie Mac, and I've got relatives who look like Margaret Thatcher." Obama has a half-sister with whom he was raised (Maya Soetoro-Ng, the daughter of his mother and her Indonesian second husband) and seven half-siblings from his Kenyan father's family – one of the members is deceased. President Obama's mother is survived by her Kansas-born mother, Madelyn Dunham, until her death on November 2, 2008.She passed away two days before his election to the Presidency. Obama also has roots in Ireland; he met with his Irish cousins in Moneygall in May 2011. In Dreams from My Father, President Obama ties his mother's family history to possible Native American ancestors and distant relatives of Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War.
Stanley Ann Dunham, his mother was born in Wichita, Kansas, and was of mostly English ancestry. His father, Barack Obama, Sr., was a Luo from Nyang’oma Kogelo, Kenya. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian class at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, where his father was a foreign student on scholarship. The couple married in Wailuku on Maui on February 2, 1961, and separated when Obama's mother moved with their newborn son to Seattle, Washington, in late August 1961, to attend the University of Washington.
Following high school, Obama moved to Los Angeles in 1979 to attend Occidental College. In February 1981, he made his first public speech, calling for Occidental to divest from South Africa in response to its policy of apartheid. The President, in mid-1981, traveled to Indonesia to visit his mother and half-sister Maya, and visited the families of college friends in Pakistan and India for three weeks. Later, he transferred as a junior to Columbia College, Columbia University in New York City, where he majored in political science with a specialty in international relations and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in 1983. He worked for a year at the Business International Corporation, then at the New York Public Interest Research Group.
In 1971, Obama returned to Honolulu to live with his maternal grandparents, Madelyn and Stanley Dunham, and with the aid of a scholarship attended Punahou School, a private college preparatory school, from fifth grade until his graduation from high school in 1979. Obama lived with his mother and sister in Hawaii for three years from 1972 to 1975 while his mother was a graduate student in anthropology at the University of Hawaii. Obama chose to stay in Hawaii with his grandparents for high school at Punahou when his mother and sister returned to Indonesia in 1975 to begin anthropology field work. Barack’s mother spent most of the next two decades in Indonesia. She divorced Lolo in 1980 and earned a PhD in 1992, before dying in 1995 in Hawaii following treatment for ovarian and uterine cancer.
Two years after graduating, Obama was hired in Chicago as director of the Developing Communities Project (DCP), a church-based community organization originally comprising eight Catholic parishes in Roseland, West Pullman, and Riverdale on Chicago's South Side. He worked there as a community organizer from June 1985 to May 1988. He helped set up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and a tenants' rights organization in Altgeld Gardens. President Obama also worked as a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, a community organizing institute. In mid-1988, he traveled for the first time in Europe for three weeks and then for five weeks in Kenya, where he met many of his paternal relatives for the first time. He returned to Kenya in 1992 with his fiancée Michelle and his half-sister Auma. He returned to Kenya in August 2006 for a visit to his father's birthplace, a village near Kisumu in rural western Kenya.
President Obama entered Harvard Law School. He was selected as an editor of the Harvard Law Review at the end of his first year, and president of the journal in his second year. During his summers, he returned to Chicago, where he worked as an associate at the law firms of Sidley Austin in 1989 and Hopkins & Sutter in 1990. After graduating with a J.D. Magna Cum Laude from Harvard in 1991, he returned to Chicago.
Barack Obama was elected as the first Black President of the Harvard Law Review gained national media attention and led to a publishing contract and advance for a book about race relations, which evolved into a personal memoir. The manuscript was published in mid-1995 as Dreams from My Father.
As a University of Chicago Law School and Civil Rights Attorney, Barack Obama accepted a two-year position as Visiting Law and Government Fellow at the University of Chicago Law School to work on his first book. He then taught at the University of Chicago Law School for twelve years—as a Lecturer from 1992 to 1996, and as a Senior Lecturer from 1996 to 2004—teaching Constitutional Law.
From April to October 1992, Obama directed The Illinois's Project Vote, a voter registration campaign with ten staffers and seven hundred volunteer registrars; it achieved its goal of registering 150,000 of 400,000 unregistered African Americans in the state, leading Crain's Chicago Business to name Obama to its 1993 list of "40 Under Forty" powers to be.
In 1993, he joined Davis, Miner, Barnhill & Galland, a 13-attorney law firm specializing in civil rights litigation and neighborhood economic development, where he was an associate for three years from 1993 to 1996, then of counsel from 1996 to 2004. His law license became inactive in 2007.
From 1994 to 2002, Obama served on the boards of directors of the Woods Fund of Chicago, which in 1985 had been the first foundation to fund the Developing Communities Project; and of the Joyce Foundation. He served on the board of directors of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge from 1995 to 2002, as Founding President and Chairman of the Board of Directors. In 1998 Barack Obama and others celebrate the naming of a street in Chicago after ShoreBank co-founder Milton Davis
Barack was elected to the Illinois Senate in 1996, succeeding State Senator Alice Palmer as Senator from Illinois's 13th District, which at that time spanned Chicago South Side neighborhoods from Hyde Park – Kenwood south to South Shore and west to Chicago Lawn. Once elected, Obama gained bipartisan support for legislation that reformed ethics and health care laws. The young senator sponsored a law that increased tax credits for low-income workers, negotiated welfare reform, and promoted increased subsidies for childcare. In 2001, as co-chairman of the bipartisan Joint Committee on Administrative Rules, Obama supported Republican Governor Ryan's payday loan regulations and predatory mortgage lending regulations aimed at averting home foreclosures.
Obama was reelected to the Illinois Senate in 1998, and was reelected again in 2002. In 2000, he lost a Democratic primary race for Illinois's 1st congressional district in the United States House of Representatives to four-term incumbent Bobby Rush by a margin of two to one.
In January 2003, Barack Obama became chairman of the Illinois Senate's Health and Human Services Committee when Democrats, after a decade in the minority, regained a majority. He sponsored and led unanimous, bipartisan passage of legislation to monitor racial profiling by requiring police to record the race of drivers they detained, and legislation making Illinois the first state to mandate videotaping of homicide interrogations. Police representatives credited Obama for his active engagement with police organizations in enacting death penalty reforms
In May 2002, Obama commissioned a poll to assess his prospects in a 2004 U.S. Senate race; he created a campaign committee, began raising funds, and lined up political media consultant David Axelrod Obama formally announced his candidacy in January 2003.
"It's not too late" to Stop the War!”~Barack Obama~
The day President George Bush and Congress agreed on the joint resolution authorizing the Iraq War, Barack Obama addressed the first high-profile Chicago anti-Iraq War rally, and spoke out against the war. He addressed another anti-war rally in March 2003 and told the crowd that "it's not too late" to stop the war.
In July 2004, Obama delivered the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention. His speech was well received and elevated his status within the Democratic Party. The speech was seen by 10 million viewers and countless American Voters.
Barry Obama cosponsored the Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act. He also introduced two initiatives that bore his name: Lugar–Obama, which expanded the Nunn–Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction concept to conventional weapons; and the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006, which authorized the establishment of USAspending.gov, a web search engine on federal spending. On June 3, 2008, Senator Obama—along with Senators Tom Carper, Tom Coburn, and John McCain—introduced follow-up legislation: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008
Obama sponsored legislation that would have required nuclear plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks, but the bill failed to pass in the full Senate after being heavily modified in committee. Regarding tort reform, Obama voted for the Class Action Fairness Act of 2005 and the FISA Amendments Act of 2008, which grants immunity from civil liability to telecommunications companies complicit with NSA warrantless wiretapping operations.
In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act, marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Barack Obama as its primary sponsor. In January 2007, Obama and Senator Feingold introduced a corporate jet provision to the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, which was signed into law in September 2007. He also introduced Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act, a bill to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections, and the Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007, neither of which was signed into law.
Later in 2007, Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act to add safeguards for personality-disorder military discharges. This amendment passed the full Senate in the spring of 2008. He sponsored the Iran Sanctions Enabling Act supporting divestment of state pension funds from Iran's oil and gas industry, which has not passed committee; and co-sponsored legislation to reduce risks of nuclear terrorism. Obama also sponsored a Senate amendment to the State Children's Health Insurance Program, providing one year of job protection for family members caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.
The President held assignments on the Senate Committees for Foreign Relations, Environment and Public Works and Veterans' Affairs through December 2006. In January 2007, he left the Environment and Public Works committee and took additional assignments with Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. He also became Chairman of the Senate's subcommittee on European Affairs. As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, President Obama made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. He met with Mahmoud Abbas before Abbas became President of the Palestinian National Authority, and gave a speech at the University of Nairobi in which he condemned corruption within the Kenyan government.
President Barack Hussein Obama is a Christian whose religious views developed in his adult life. He wrote in “The Audacity of Hope” that he "was not raised in a religious household". He described his mother, raised by non-religious parents (whom Obama has specified elsewhere as "non-practicing Methodists and Baptists"), as being detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most spiritually awakened person that I have ever known". He described his father as a "confirmed atheist" by the time his parents met, and his stepfather as "a man who saw religion as not particularly useful." Obama explained how, through working with Black churches as a community organizer while in his twenties, he came to understand "the power of the African-American religious tradition to spur social change".
In an interview with the ‘Evangelical Periodical Christianity Today,’ Obama stated:
"I am a Christian, and I am a devout Christian. I believe in the redemptive death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. I believe that that faith gives me a path to be cleansed of sin and have eternal life."
"I'm a Christian by choice. My family didn't—frankly; they weren't folks who went to church every week. And my mother was one of the most spiritual people I knew, but she didn't raise me in the church. So I came to my Christian faith later in life, and it was because the precepts of Jesus Christ spoke to me in terms of the kind of life that I would want to lead—being my brothers' and sisters' keeper, treating others as they would treat me."~ President Barack H. Obama, September 27, 2010~
He resigned from Trinity in May 2008 during his first presidential campaign after controversial statements by Wright were publicized. In October 1987 President Barack Obama met Trinity United Church of Christ pastor Rev. Jeremiah Wright and became a member of Trinity. After a prolonged effort to find a church to attend regularly in Washington, Obama announced in June 2009 that his primary place of worship would be the Evergreen Chapel at Camp David.
President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle, worship at African Methodist Episcopal Church in Washington, D.C.
The lips of black-robed judges appeared before him. They were whiter than the sheet of this printed page. Their lips displayed an unholy and terrible exaggeration. He saw this. His soul was spoiled…to revolution. He heard the sound of inquisitional voices. They seemed to be merged into one singular voice. He heard no more…for a time.
Fate was issuing from the lips of the black-robed men. What an expression of firmness and immovable resolution? My lord, the grotesqueness! The faces blazed with stern contempt of human nature. Fate continued, in his view, issuance from their lips. He saw them writhe with deadly locution. I shuddered to think what the man saw. The idea of delirious horror…The hellish pit was regarded by rumor as the ultimate pain deliverer of all punishment citadels. It was the ‘Ultima Thule’ of castles. By mere accident, the man avoided a death-dealing plunge into the nightmarish hellhole. He, at that moment, prayed to his God that he’d been spared the fall. His falling was no plan of his tormentors. The demons planned a different and grotesque form of death for the strapped prostrate and helpless individual. The rushing vibrations of swinging and creaking steel, during the long, long passage of time, was more than mortal man (or woman) could endure. The descent of the massive cleaver was only appreciated by its intervals between swings. It seemed like ages. Down, down, and further down, it came.
The dungeon contains only one massive pit. Its circular jaws had just missed its meal with the man not falling into its mouth. The light, as slight as it was allowed the man to see the fiendish figures in their astral forms of menace. The outlined monstrosities were highly distinct. Their meshed forms flowed in the meld along the walls of the shadowy prison. The colors were faded and blurred. They shaped the many imperfections throughout the horribly damp atmosphere.
The hellish pit was regarded by rumor as the ultimate pain deliverer of all punishment citadels. It was the ‘Ultima Thule’ of castles. By mere accident, the man avoided a death-dealing plunge into the nightmarish hellhole. He, at that moment, prayed to his God that he’d been spared the fall. His falling was no plan of his tormentors. The demons planned a different and grotesque form of death for the strapped prostrate and helpless individual. The rushing vibrations of swinging and creaking steel, during the long, long passage of time, was more than mortal man (or woman) could endure. The descent of the massive cleaver was only appreciated by its intervals between swings. It seemed like ages. Down, down, and further down, it came.
Hope of peace and freedom came to him again. A pervading and suffocating odor filled the atmosphere of the prison. The stench overcame the preceding smells. The horror of crimson colored blood was splashed all over him. The fresh spewing blood added warmth to the mixture of gore previously washing him. The blade and rat teeth cut deeply into his flesh. His tormentors – oh so unrelenting – the demonic inquisitorial executioners shifted in their positions. The squeaky cranking and grinding noise of the massive scimitar was rising above the reach of his gaping belly wound.
The heads of the inquisitors, the man’s tormentors, found their heads in baskets of straw at the bottom of a guillotine and the blades of swords.
The inquisition and its terror were over…~“The Pendulum of Hades,” HALLOW~
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese Teacher, Editor, Politician, and Philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
The philosophy of Confucius emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. His followers competed successfully with many other schools during the Hundred Schools of Thought era only to be suppressed in favor of the Legalists during the Qin Dynasty. Following the victory of Han over Chu after the collapse of Qin, Confucius's thoughts received official sanction and were further developed into a system known as Confucianism.
Confucius is traditionally credited with having authored or edited many of the Chinese classic texts including all of the Five Classics, but modern scholars are cautious of attributing specific assertions to Confucius himself. Aphorisms concerning his teachings were compiled in the Analects, but only many years posthumously.
Confucius's principles had a basis in common Chinese tradition and belief. He championed strong family loyalty, ancestor worship, respect of elders by their children and (in traditional interpretations) of husbands by their wives. He also recommended family as a basis for ideal government. He espoused the well-known principle "Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself", an early version of the Golden Rule.
Confucius' family and personal name respectively was Kong Qiu His courtesy name was Zhongni. In Chinese, he is most often known as Kongzi (literally "Master Kong"). He is also known by the Honorific Kong Fuzi (Kǒng Fūzǐ, literally "Master Kong"). In the Wade–Giles system of The Romanization, the Honorific Name is rendered as "K'ung Fu-tzu". The Latinized name "Confucius" is derived from "Kong Fuzi", and was first coined by 16th-century Jesuit missionaries to China, most probably by Matteo Ricci.
Within the Analects, he is often referred to simply as "The Master."
According to tradition, three generations before Confucius' time, his ancestors had migrated from the Song state to the Lu state. Confucius was said to have been a descendant of the Shang kings or priests through the Dukes of Song.
His father Kong He also known as Shuliang He was an officer in the Lu military. It is generally thought that Confucius was born in 551 BC. His birthplace was in Zou, Lu state (near present-day Qufu, Shandong Province). Kong He died when Confucius was three years old, and Confucius was raised by his mother Yan Zhengzai in poverty. At age 19 he married his wife, surnamed Qiguan, and a year later the couple had their first child, Kong Li.
Master Philosopher Confucius was born into the class of Shi (士), between the aristocracy and the common people. He is said to have worked as a shepherd, cowherd, clerk, and a book-keeper. When his mother died, Confucius (aged 23) is said to have mourned for three years as was the tradition.
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history. The philosophy of Confucius emphasized personal and governmental morality.
Confucius' descendants were repeatedly identified and honored by successive imperial governments with titles of nobility and official posts. They were honored with the rank of a Marquis thirty-five times since Gaozu of the Han Dynasty, and they were promoted to the rank of duke forty-two times from the Tang Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty. Emperor Xuanzong of Tang first bestowed the title of "Duke Wenxuan" on Kong Suizhi of the 35th generation. In 1055, Emperor Renzong of Song first bestowed the title of "Duke Yansheng" on Kong Zongyuan of the 46th generation.
Confucius's teachings were later turned into an elaborate set of rules and practices by his numerous disciples and followers, who organized his teachings into the Analects. Confucius' disciples and his only grandson, Zisi, continued his philosophical school after his death. These efforts spread Confucian ideals to students who then became officials in many of the royal courts in China, thereby giving Confucianism the first wide-scale test of its dogma.
Confucius's family, the Kongs, have the longest recorded extant pedigree in the world today. The father-to-son family tree, now in its 83rd generation, has been recorded since the death of Confucius. According to the Confucius Genealogy Compilation Committee, he has 2 million known and registered descendants, and there are an estimated 3 million in all. Of these, several tens of thousands live outside of China. In the 14th century, a Kong descendant went to Korea, where an estimated 34,000 descendants of Confucius live today. One of the main lineages fled from the Kong ancestral home in Qufu during the Chinese Civil War in the 1940s, and eventually settled in Taiwan.
Despite repeated dynastic change in China, the title of Duke Yansheng was bestowed upon successive generations of descendants until it was abolished by the Nationalist Government in 1935. The last holder of the title, Kung Te-cheng of the 77th generation, was appointed Sacrificial Official to Confucius. Kung Te-cheng died in October 2008, and his son, Kung Wei-yi, the 78th lineal descendant, had died in 1989. Kung Te-cheng's grandson, Kung Tsui-chang, the 79th lineal descendant, was born in 1975; his great-grandson, Kung Yu-jen, the 80th lineal descendant, was born in Taipei on January 1, 2006. Te-cheng's sister, Kong Demao, lives in mainland China and has written a book about her experiences growing up at the family estate in Qufu. Another sister, Kong Deqi, died as a young woman.
Two of Confucius's most famous later followers emphasized radically different aspects of his teachings. In the centuries after his death, Mencius and Xun Zi both composed important teachings elaborating in different ways on the fundamental ideas associated with Confucius. Mencius (4th century BC) articulated the innate goodness in human beings as a source of the ethical intuitions that guide people towards rén, yì, and lǐ, while Xun Zi (3rd century BC) underscored the realistic and materialistic aspects of Confucian thought, stressing that morality was inculcated in society through tradition and in individuals through training. In time, their writings, together with the Analects and other core texts came to constitute the philosophical corpus of Confucianism.
A disagreement between these two political philosophies came to a head in 223 BC when the Qin state conquered all of China. This realignment in Confucian thought was parallel to the development of Legalism, which saw filial piety as self-interest and not a useful tool for a ruler to create an effective state. Li Ssu, Prime Minister of the Qin Dynasty convinced Qin Shi Huang to abandon the Confucians' recommendation of awarding fiefs akin to the Zhou Dynasty before them which he saw as counter to the Legalist idea of centralizing the state around the ruler. When the Confucian advisers pressed their point, Li Ssu had many Confucian scholars killed and their books burned—considered a huge blow to the philosophy and Chinese scholarship.
Under the succeeding Han Dynasty and Tang Dynasty, Confucian ideas gained even more widespread prominence. Under Wudi, the works of Confucius were made the official imperial philosophy and required reading for civil service examinations in 140 BC which was continued nearly unbroken until the end of the 19th Century. As Moism lost support by the time of the Han, the main philosophical contenders were Legalism, which Confucian thought somewhat absorbed, the teachings of Lao-tzu, whose focus on more mystic ideas kept it from direct conflict with Confucianism, and the new Buddhist religion, which gained acceptance during the Southern and Northern Dynasties era. Both Confucian ideas and Confucian-trained officials were relied upon in the Ming Dynasty and even the Yuan Dynasty, although Kublai Khan distrusted handing over provincial control.
During the Song Dynasty, the scholar Zhu Xi (AD 1130–1200) added ideas from Daoism and Buddhism into Confucianism. In his life, Zhu Xi was largely ignored, but not long after his death his ideas became the new orthodox view of what Confucian texts actually meant. Modern historians view Zhu Xi as having created something rather different, and call his way of thinking Neo-Confucianism. Neo-Confucianism held sway in China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam until the 19th century.
Confucius' political thought is based upon his ethical thought. He argues that the best government is one that rules through "rites" (lǐ) and people's natural morality, rather than by using bribery and coercion. He explained that this is one of the most important analects: "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame. If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of the shame, and moreover will become good." (Translated by James Legge in the Great Learning) This "sense of shame" is an internalization of duty, where the punishment precedes the evil action, instead of following it in the form of laws as in Legalism.
Confucius looked nostalgically upon earlier days, and urged the Chinese, particularly those with political power, to model themselves on earlier examples. In times of division, chaos, and endless wars between feudal states, he wanted to restore the Mandate of Heaven that could unify the "world all under Heaven" and bestow peace and prosperity on the people. Because his vision of personal and social perfections was framed as a revival of the ordered society of earlier times, Confucius is often considered a great proponent of conservatism, but a closer look at what he proposes often shows that he used (and perhaps twisted) past institutions and rites to push a new political agenda of his own: a revival of a unified royal state, whose rulers would succeed to power on the basis of their moral merits instead of lineage. These would be rulers devoted to their people, striving for personal and social perfection, and such a ruler would spread his own virtues to the people instead of imposing proper behavior with laws and rules.
While he supported the idea of government ruling by a virtuous king, his ideas contained a number of elements to limit the power of rulers. He argued for according language with truth, and honesty was of paramount importance. Even in facial expression, truth must always be represented. Confucius believed that if a ruler were to lead correctly, by action, that orders would be deemed unnecessary in that others will follow the proper actions of their ruler. In discussing the relationship between a king and his subject (or a father and his son), he underlined the need to give due respect to superiors. This demanded that the subordinates must give advice to their superiors if the superiors were considered to be taking the course of action that was wrong. Confucius believed in ruling by example, “if you lead correctly, orders are unnecessary and useless.”
Matteo Ricci started to report on the thoughts of Confucius, and Father Prospero Intorcetta published “The life and works of Confucius” into Latin in 1687. The works of Confucius were translated into European languages through the agency of Jesuit scholars stationed in China. It is thought that such works had considerable importance on European thinkers of the period, particularly among the Deists and other philosophical groups of the Enlightenment who were interested by the integration of the system of morality of Confucius into Western civilization.
In the modern era Confucian movements, such as New Confucianism, still exist but during the Cultural Revolution, Confucianism was frequently attacked by leading figures in the Communist Party of China. This was partially a continuation of the condemnations of Confucianism by intellectuals and activists in the early 20th Century as a cause of the ethnocentric close-mindedness and refusal of the Qing Dynasty to modernize that led to the tragedies that befell China in the 19th Century.
Often overlooked in Confucian ethics are the virtues to the self: sincerity and the cultivation of knowledge. Virtuous action towards others begins with virtuous and sincere thought, which begins with knowledge. A virtuous disposition without knowledge is susceptible to corruption and virtuous action without sincerity is not true righteousness. Cultivating knowledge and sincerity is also important for one's own sake; the superior person loves learning for the sake of learning and righteousness for the sake of righteousness.
The Confucian theory of ethics as exemplified in Lǐ (禮) is based on three important conceptual aspects of life: ceremonies associated with sacrifice to ancestors and deities of various types, social and political institutions, and the etiquette of daily behavior. It was believed by some that lǐ originated from the heavens, but Confucius stressed the development of lǐ through the actions of sage leaders in human history. His discussions of lǐ seem to redefine the term to refer to all actions committed by a person to build the ideal society, rather than those simply conforming with canonical standards of ceremony.
In the early Confucian tradition, lǐ was doing the proper thing at the proper time, balancing between maintaining existing norms to perpetuate an ethical social fabric, and violating them in order to accomplish ethical good. Training in the lǐ of past sages cultivates in people virtues that include ethical judgment about when lǐ must be adapted in light of situational contexts.
The Philosophy of Confucius:
Rén consists of 5 basic virtues: seriousness, generosity, sincerity, diligence and kindness. Rén is the virtue of perfectly fulfilling one's responsibilities toward others, most often translated as "benevolence" or "humaneness"; translator Arthur Waley calls it "Goodness." Other translations that have been put forth include "authoritativeness" and "selflessness." Confucius's moral system was based upon empathy and understanding others, rather than divinely ordained rules.
In the Analects, Confucius presents himself as a "transmitter who invented nothing". He puts the greatest emphasis on the importance of study, and it is the Chinese character for study (學) that opens the text. Far from trying to build a systematic or formalist theory, he wanted his disciples to master and internalize the old classics, so that their deep thought and thorough study would allow them to relate the moral problems of the present to past political events (as recorded in the Annals) or the past expressions of commoners' feelings and noblemen's reflections (as in the poems of the Book of Odes).
One of the deepest teachings of Confucius may have been the superiority of personal exemplification over explicit rules of behavior. His moral teachings emphasized self-cultivation, emulation of moral exemplars, and the attainment of skilled judgment rather than knowledge of rules. Confucian ethics may be considered a type of virtue ethics. His teachings rarely rely on reasoned argument and ethical ideals and methods are conveyed more indirectly, through allusion, innuendo, and even tautology. His teachings require examination and context in order to be understood.
According to many commentators, Confucius's teachings may be considered a Chinese example of humanism.
When the stables were burnt down, on returning from court Confucius said, "Was anyone hurt?" He did not ask about the horses.
By not asking about the horses, Confucius demonstrates that the sage values human beings over property; readers are led to reflect on whether their response would follow Confucius's and to pursue self-improvement. Confucius, as an exemplar of human excellence, serves as the ultimate model, rather than a deity or a universally true set of abstract principles.
A variant of the Golden Rule sometimes called the "Silver Rule":
"What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others."
Zi Gong, a disciple, asked: "Is there any one word that could guide a person throughout life?"
The Master replied: “How about 'reciprocity!” (An exchange of trade between nations – based upon privileges granted to both)
In Confucianism, the concept of li is closely related to yì, which is based upon the idea of reciprocity. Yì can be translated as righteousness, though it may simply mean what is ethically best to do in a certain context. The term contrasts with action done out of self-interest. While pursuing one's own self-interest is not necessarily bad, one would be a better, more righteous person if one's life was based upon following a path designed to enhance the greater good. Thus an outcome of yì is doing the right thing for the right reason.
“Behold, thy dwelling shall be the fatness of the Earth, and of the dew of Heaven above; and by the sword shalt thou live, and shalt serve thy brother; and it shall come to pass when thou shalt have the dominion, that thou shalt break his yoke from off the neck!”
One may ask of me… Am I a Christian? I would respond with an answer of no. Was Yahshua/Jesus not a Jew…maybe ‘Falasha?’ I would add that I believe in the messenger, Yahshua/Jesus. I believe in His teachings, His love, His Prophecy, and the Word of GOD! I like He, am a Hebrew Descendent, like My Fathers before me.
Who, what is a Christian that murders another Christian? One who murders a Jew, a Muslim, a Buddhist, a Hindu, a Jehovah Witness, or an Atheist, of whatever belief or faith, all in the name of GOD?
“GOD WILLS IT” or “GOD Believes It” was heard to be shouted during the battles of ‘the Dark Ages’ and the ‘Christian – Muslim Wars.’ It was a convenient and useful excuse to butcher and murder one another to the advantage of the aggressor.
I have no desire to affiliate with groups of hatred, murder, and deceit. No man has the right to say what GOD thinks or believes – but I dare say, I do not believe that GOD would desire the support from such a creed; nor would He give or offer support in return.
“And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the Earth, and daughters were born unto them, that the sons of God saw the daughters of men – that they were fair; and of them they took as wives of all they chose.
And the Lord said, “My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh; yet his days shall be a hundred and twenty years.”
Christians in Christianity:
“Our greatest glory is not in never falling, but in getting up every time we do.”~ Confucius~
“Nothing produces celebration quite like the knowledge that you are victorious, that the enemy (Satan/The Devil and his cohorts) has been defeated, and, therefore, that you are not subject to the enemy’s bondage anymore.
Since this is true, you should be shouting in celebration right now. Why? Because as a (new) creation in Jesus Christ, you are free. You are not fighting for victory but from a position of victory. And if Christ has set you free, you are really free.
The enemy does not want you to learn and experience the truth of your identity in Christ, he wants you either to dismiss it or relegate it to the category of what is often called “positional truth,” with no day-to-day reality attached to it.
But one of the best ways to be reminded of your freedom in Christ is to celebrate it each day. Praise GOD daily for the freedom Christ has given you because of your identity with him. Praise Him for your freedom whether or not you feel it emotionally right now, because it’s true! And since Satan and his minions are allergic to praise, they will have to leave you alone when you praise GOD for what is true, rather than believing the devil for what is a lie.”
…Traditions are the riverhead of western literature, although we can discern other contributions near the source and continuing tributary streams from Africa and the East.
“Now, this is the covenant that I will make with the people of Israel in the days to come, says the Lord: I will put my laws in their minds and write them on their hearts. I will be their God, and they will be my people. None of them will have to teach their friends or tell their neighbors, ‘Know the Lord.’ For they will all know me, from the least to the greatest.”Hebrews 8:10-11
…And again the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, and He moved David against them to say, “Go, number Israel and Judah.
“I do bring a flood of waters upon the Earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven; and everything that is in the Earth shall die!”
It is nothing to kill a people physically who has already been killed Culturally, Psychologically, Historically, Linguistically, Spiritually and Economically as a result of Disenfranchising them from their Ancestral lands.
A suit and a tie with a nice smile and a hand shake, with a 401k plan to offer is not going to solve the systemic and endemic problems of our people....particularly our youth who we have been allowed to be continually miseducated by the descendants of savages.
In the 601st year, in the 1st month…the waters dried up from the Earth
My brethren, I am therefore ‘Spiritual’ in my belief of the Holy Father, for His Spirit is within me as it should be within you. “…The Spirit of the Lord!”
Til Next Time…
Many thanks to the comments and opinions of members of (BIA) ‘BlackInAmerica.com’Eliza Earsman’s ‘Days of Elijah’
The Holy Bible, The Holy Qur’an, and passages of The Torah
Tony Evans, author of ‘Free At Last’
Peter N. Jones, Amazon Review Commenter
Samuel F. Yette, author of ‘The Choice: The Issue of Black Survival in America’
Wikipedia.com and wikipedia.org
“Jesse Owens had completed a task that had never been accomplished in the history of track and field. He had set three new world records,” Alfred M. Landon
It was 1936, and Owens had just won four gold medals in track and field in Berlin.
''Later that year,'' Douglas was saying the other day, ''Jesse was making campaign appearances for Alfred M. Landon. He was speaking at a high school in Pittsburgh, and my mother took me to hear him. I was 13. Herb Douglas
Leo Tolstoy, “War and Peace”
The history, data, and background of Mohandas Karamchand (Mahatma) Gandhi, John and Robert Kennedy, Dr. Martin Luther King, Madiba/Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, and Barack Hussein Obama
Publications of ‘BoulwareEnterprises, ‘Spirit of the Soul and the Death of Morals’
HALLOW, “The Pendulum of Hades”
"Life and works of Confucius", by Prospero Intorcetta, 1687
“Article Posting Sites”http://www.blogger.com/profile/10910946197037982583
“Let the workers do as they will…let those in the depths use force and do wrong, so that we can be justified in using force against them…behold a New World Order!”http://landofozandthelandofbabel.blogspot.com/